World Book Day at Touro University Graduate School of Education Thursday, April 7th, 2022

Touro University Graduate School of Education will celebrate World Book Day Thursday, April 7th, 2022 through a marathon read-aloud from 9 am to 4 pm. Concurrently, Touro University celebrates its 50th anniversary by sharing award-winning books and resources for teachers, parents, and caregivers. Click here for the complete schedule: https://www.touro.edu/news–events/events/world-book-day-2022.php

Registration Required for This Free Event: Webinar Registration – Zoom

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate  Kelly Broshears Morphology and Semantics Project: ‘The Giving Tree’ for EDDN 636

EDDN 636 Linguistic Structure of the English Language – Sociolinguistic Perspective

Course Description:
This course provides an understanding of basic linguistic concepts and their applications for TESOL instruction. Students will be introduced to the essential concepts of language development and modern linguistic components that are relevant to first and second language pedagogy. Specific concepts include: phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, discourse analysis, and the nature of regional and social variations in English and the relationship between dialects and ethnic identity. Students will explore the origins, diversity, and functions of human languages, in addition to the relationship between language and society. Students will also study key concepts of sociolinguistics in order to gain a solid understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of language. Includes 10 hours of fieldwork. 3 credits

Michele Goldin is an Assistant Professor of Bilingual Education and TESOL at Touro University Graduate School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition from Rutgers University. Her research broadly focuses on child bilingualism. As a heritage speaker of Spanish herself, she strives to increase our understanding of bilingual development with direct implications for successful academic outcomes, language policy and pedagogy, as well as bilingual and dual-language education.

Kelly Broshears is a 3rd-semester student at Touro College as a member of the TESOL master’s program. She received her undergraduate degree at Salve Regina University in Newport RI in 2019 majoring in early childhood education. “This is where I found a passion for working with ENL students. Currently, I am a kindergarten teacher for the NYC DOE in District 27.”

Context games: One idea I thought of would be a game in regard to the context of the word. I would introduce a word and would read the definition of the word. Then, I would give 3 sentences with the word but two do not make sense in the context. Students would have to choose which sentence would make sense.

Kelly Broshears, Touro University, Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin’s Resource Infographic: Artificial Intelligence Use Cases

I am excited to share my infographic”Artificial Intelligence Use Cases” which visualizes the spectrum of AI across different sectors. Each white button in the PDF below contains a link to further resources.

There are a plethora of resources available such as blog posts, podcasts, white papers, scholarly articles, online courses, and newsletters. This infographic is intended as a resource and starting point for people who want to learn more about AI and its use cases.

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate Timothy Bura’s Linguistic Case Study for EDDN 636

EDDN 636 Linguistic Structure of the English Language – Sociolinguistic Perspective

Course Description
This course provides an understanding of basic linguistic concepts and their applications for TESOL instruction. Students will be introduced to the essential concepts of language development and modern linguistic components that are relevant to first and second language pedagogy. Specific concepts include: phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, discourse
analysis, and the nature of regional and social variations in English and the relationship between dialects and ethnic identity. Students will explore the origins, diversity, and functions of human languages, in addition to the relationship between language and society. Students will also study key concepts of sociolinguistics in order to gain a solid understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of language. Includes 10 hours of fieldwork. 3 credits

Michele Goldin is an Assistant Professor of Bilingual Education and TESOL at Touro University Graduate School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition from Rutgers University. Her research broadly focuses on child bilingualism. As a heritage speaker of Spanish herself, she strives to increase our understanding of bilingual development with direct implications for successful academic outcomes, language policy and pedagogy, as well as bilingual and dual-language education.

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate Timothy Bura received his Bachelor’s degree in Sociology/Anthropology from Long Island University Brooklyn. After completing his undergraduate studies, he joined the NYC Teaching Fellows and earned his Master’s degree in Teaching Urban Adolescents with Disabilities from Long Island University Brooklyn. “Currently, I am working on my second Master’s in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages at Touro University. I taught for four years at Midwood High School at Brooklyn College and transferred to Innovation Diploma Plus High School this year.”

I did some research into how to make and teach the phoneme /th/ and found a Chicago based speech therapist named Karen George’s website. She advises that you first teach the mouth movements and tongue placement for that sound. She writes that you place your tongue in between your teeth and breathe out. This will make an “unvoiced /th/ sound”. When David and I met to work on this, I had him do this exercise (George, 2012). Since we are required to wear masks, I separated myself from him to show him what I meant by placing one’s tongue in between their teeth.

TESOL Teacher Candidate Timothy Bura, Touro University – Graduate School of Education

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate Shannon Smith’s Text Analysis for EDDN 637, Second Language Learners and the Content Areas

EDDN 637 Second Language Learners and the Content Areas

Join the https://gse.touro.edu/academics/masters-programs/tesol/

Students will become acquainted with and practice effective approaches, methods, and strategies for teaching and evaluating English language learners in the content areas (ELA, social studies, math and science). Throughout the course, students will explore the impact of culture and language on classroom learning. Special challenges in teaching and assessment in each content area will also be discussed. Includes 15 hours of fieldwork.

Shannon Smith, a Touro University TESOL candidate pursues a degree in the TESOL program at Touro University, Graduate school of education. She is a certified general education and special education 1-6th grade. She is currently filling in as a leave replacement Kindergarten and First grade ENL

Text: American History, Unit 2: Creating a Nation

English language learners face a lot of challenges when the linguistic and cognitive demands of certain content areas are unaligned to their cultural background knowledge and perspectives. The academic standards recommended by the NYS for English language learners can be very overwhelming for both students and educators. Teachers play a critical role in ensuring that students are linked with available basic literature and prior knowledge whenever they are being guided to understand any of the general subjects(Haynes,2005).

The instruction begins with educators learning from the learners and putting ourselves in the place of our students with the frustrating, challenging factors they face on a daily basis so that we can learn and understand the way they do. As educators, we can find more engaging ways to help ELLs learn new material that draws on their own unique background knowledge and perspectives. I am currently a Kindergarten and first-grade ENL teacher. With some setbacks this year and a shortage of substitutes, I have been placed all over the school and do not see my ENL students as much as I would like to. I have not been able to cover the subjects I had planned to. When I do have the opportunity to see my students we are still working on letter and sound recognition which was difficult to find required texts and resources for since it is very simple and basic. I chose to use a resource that was provided in this course that will still be beneficial in my teaching since I am acting as a substitute majority of the time and work with students k-6. I chose to analyze and critique a chapter from a social studies textbook on the American Revolution. Chapter four of the American revolution is a relevant example of how English language learners face challenges when learning social studies, especially when relating to American history.

This American Revolution unit explores the major causes and people of the war, focusing on the importance of America and New York State during this period. The education system lacks efficiency in impacting new English learners to respond to cognitive needs because there is a lack of familiarity with the historical background being used. If a student is not from America or specifically New York State, but is expected to have prior background knowledge on New York State and information about America, students are not going to understand key ideas and details. A majority of ELLs do not have the same background knowledge that their peers have or that textbook authors take for granted, like knowing the 50 states and having them memorized. They also bring their own unique and valuable experiences and background to the classroom. Sometimes those experiences can be connected to the content to make the instruction meaningful and help them comprehend the material, but if they cannot make connections to their background knowledge and different points of view or ideas are expressed, they might miss important concepts and ideas in the lesson. A student might be a master in history about the country they are from, and know all about the regions and areas, and would be able to understand wars and battles that were fought where they were from, but cannot grasp or make connections to places like New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Massachusetts, etc. that this unit also places a huge emphasis on. The textbook states “The Treaty of Paris gave Britain most of Canada, all French lands east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida.” (p.297). This could be very confusing to students who do not have background knowledge about these places. When a student hears “Spanish Florida” and does not know what state Florida is, what could it possibly mean to them by saying Spanish Florida? And how confusing could it be for them to talk about the French lands, but then also talk about Canada and Florida?

English Language Learners might have already learned about important historic moments in their own country, and now we are asking them to relearn something they learned about in a different way because what they have already learned is not correct or relevant to what they are learning in American history today in the classroom.  The first thing I would do prior to introducing the American Revolution is to pre-teach about America and introduce the 50 states. I would create engaging activities and games using visual representatives to help students recognize and eventually maybe memorize the 50 states so when they are reading and learning about them in this unit, they can make some connection to them or be familiar with Boston when it comes up, or New York.  Some ways to also engage ELLs in regards to this unit of the American Revolution to draw on their background knowledge and perspectives could be to hold a class discussion on where students are from and to show visual representations like maps to point out where they are from and then take that opportunity to compare it to America and relate it into the American Revolution and use this as a teaching point to teach about the states in America that they might see come up in lessons about the American Revolution. The more they see and learn about the states that are presented in the unit, the more they will start to recognize and memorize them and gain more knowledge about them.

This unit on the American Revolution has a lot of academic language and key vocabulary that is essential for students to know in order to understand concepts and ideas of the American Revolution. Two major ideas that come up a lot in this unit are cause and effect. The textbook states “Why It Matters Understanding cause and effect can help you see why events happen” (p.303). Pre-teaching the meaning of these words will eliminate any confusion when students are learning about a cause and effect of an aspect from the American Revolution. Explicitly explaining to students that a cause is an action or event that makes something happen, and an effect is what happens as the result of the action or event, is essential in this unit as a majority of the battles fought during the Revolution was a cause of something and always has an effect. This concept is also important to teach because a question on a state test might come up like “what was the cause of______” or “what was the effect of________”. It can be difficult for students to understand cause and effect especially on a topic that they do not connect to or understand. For example, the textbook states “In the mid-1600s, people began to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony and start their own settlements. Some left because of religious reasons. Others left to find better economic opportunities” (p.304). In this statement, it is important for students to understand the cause and effect of people leaving the Massachusetts Bay Colony, but it might be difficult to understand if they do not have background knowledge of Massachusetts or know what that is, and also if they don’t understand the meaning of cause and effect it will be challenging to understand why wars in the revolution began and ended. Starting by having students find and share real-life examples of causes and effects that relate to their personal lives and backgrounds is a great start to introduce cause and effect of the American Revolution.

 In this unit of the American Revolution, there are also an incredible amount of unknown words for students and key vocabulary words that could be difficult to understand. Words like boycott, taxation, representation, parliament, proclamation, congress, protest, repeal appear a lot throughout the chapter and are important to be exposed to when learning about the different wars and battles of the American Revolution. For example, “In October 1765, representatives from nine colonies met in New York City in what became known as the Stamp Act Congress” (p.303). If students come across this excerpt, or it is read to them, and they do not know what congress means they are going to be very confused. The lines “no taxation without representation” also are repeated a lot throughout the chapter and is an important concept when learning about the American Revolution. Introducing these vocabulary words in depth is going to be beneficial to engage students in understanding the American Revolution. Some ways I would help my students is to pre-teach all of the important vocabulary words by utilizing word clouds and making sure I present a visual definition for each word. To begin a lesson on vocabulary, I would post a word cloud using wordsift containing the important vocabulary words for the unit. I would have the students on their own make a list of the words that they know and words that they do not know. After a few minutes of independent work, I would have the students turn and talk to a partner to compare their lists and learn from one another some of the words they did not know. After the partner talks I would move into the vocabulary instruction so that by the end of the lesson, every student would at least be exposed to and recognize every word.

To begin a lesson on vocabulary, I would post a word cloud using wordsift containing the important vocabulary words for the unit. I would have the students on their own make a list of the words that they know and words that they do not know. After a few minutes of independent work, I would have the students turn and talk to a partner to compare their lists and learn from one another some of the words they did not know

Shannon Smith, Touro University Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate

References

 Open resource. America’s History. New York: Worth Publishers, 2022. PDF. Social Studies textbook Unit 4 637 (4).pdf Chapter 4: The American Revolution, 1754-1783 – Northern Local …

Haynes, J. (2005). Challenges for ELLs in content area learning. In TESOL annual convention, Baltimore, MD.

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate Meghan Schick on Figurative Language and Multilingual Learners

EDDN 637 Second Language Learners and the Content Areas

Students will become acquainted with and practice effective approaches, methods, and strategies for teaching and evaluating English language learners in the content areas (ELA, social studies, math and science). Throughout the course, students will explore the impact of culture and language on classroom learning. Special challenges in teaching and assessment in each content area will also be discussed. Includes 15 hours of fieldwork.

Join the https://gse.touro.edu/academics/masters-programs/tesol/

Text Analysis & Critique Assignment Description

Following a discussion on the cognitive and linguistic demands of the content areas, you will apply these ideas by closely analyzing a chapter, or an aspect of one content-area text currently in use or recommended by New York State/BOE. Upon analysis of underlying concepts, you will develop a thesis and the purpose of your analysis. You will sequence your ideas with evidence from the text supporting important points. Your critique will feature substantial, logical, and concrete development of ideas describing what makes that concept or section challenging for ELLs. Length: 3-4-page paper (typed, double spaced, 12-point font).

Learning Outcomes:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of various text analysis techniques in relation to educational content-area texts.
  • In written form effectively articulate, evaluate and critique educational content-area texts concepts using professional TESOL language, theory, and standards.
  • Ask questions from the view of an ELL/ESL learner that can be meaningfully answered using content-area text analysis.
  • Evaluate evidence; interpret data such as ELL students cannot glean meaning from context when they have too many words to decipher.
  • Express yourself effectively on graduate-level writing

Meghan Schick is a graduate student in the Masters of Education TESOL program at Touro University’s Graduate School of Education, TESOL/BLE program. “I am really enjoying learning more about how to support my students who are English Language Learners in this program. I hope to become a TESOL teacher one day in the future.”

I think that acting out similes and idioms is another effective strategy to support English language learners. One way I would teach my students about similes and idioms is by showing them visual representations from the text. I would also have the students create their own visual representation of each simile and idiom we find in the novel. For example, I would have the student copy down the sentence, “It was like having a chestful of bats”(Davies, 4). I would then encourage them to draw a visual representation of what they believe it means. I would have the students turn and talk to share their ideas with each other.

Meghan Schick, Touro University, Graduate School of Education TESOL Teacher Candidate 

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education Advanced Certificate in TESOL Candidate Marie-Nansie Victor on Morphology and Semantics for EDDN 636

EDDN 636 Linguistic Structure of the English Language – Sociolinguistic Perspective

Course Description
This course provides an understanding of basic linguistic concepts and their applications for TESOL instruction. Students will be introduced to the essential concepts of language development and modern linguistic components that are relevant to first and second language pedagogy. Specific concepts include: phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, discourse
analysis, and the nature of regional and social variations in English and the relationship between dialects and ethnic identity. Students will explore the origins, diversity, and functions of human languages, in addition to the relationship between language and society. Students will also study key concepts of sociolinguistics in order to gain a solid understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of language. Includes 10 hours of fieldwork. 3 credits

Join Touro University, GSE: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and Bilingual Education and Services https://gse.touro.edu/academics/advanced-certificates/

Marie-Nansie Victor’s personal introduction: My name is Marie-Nansie Victor. I immigrated to the United States from Haiti about two decades ago. I am married and blessed with four children. Currently, I work as a paraprofessional for the New York City Board of Education. I received an associate degree in Liberal Arts from Kingsborough Community College, and I went to York College where I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in French. I am now working toward an Advanced Certificate in TESOL at Touro College after completing a master’s degree in Early Childhood Education (General and Special Education.)
Even though I have a busy life between work, school, and family, I manage to find time for some of my favorite hobbies like cooking, baking, and reading. With the help and support of my instructors, I successfully complete all my assignments. Soon I will be working as a teacher. I have a passion for teaching, and I hope to inspire all my students.

Michele Goldin is an Assistant Professor of Bilingual Education and TESOL at Touro University Graduate School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition from Rutgers University. Her research broadly focuses on child bilingualism. As a heritage speaker of Spanish herself, she strives to increase our understanding of bilingual development with direct implications for successful academic outcomes, language policy and pedagogy, as well as bilingual and dual-language education.

Difficult Words for Multilingual Learners

First, I will divide the class into four heterogeneous groups, and each group will discuss one of the words written on a different color card. Then a member of the group, most likely an ELL, will share with the class, while the other members will assist and support him/her.

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education Advanced Certificate in TESOL Candidate Marie-Nansie Victor

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin to speak on“Nanoscience, Nanotechnology & Metaverses Conceptualization and Visualization” for the 2nd International Meet & Expo on Nanotechnology (NANOMEET2022)

I am pleased that I am an Invited Speaker on “Nanoscience, Nanotechnology & Metaverses Conceptualization and Visualization” 2nd International Meet & Expo on Nanotechnology (NANOMEET2022), to be held in Edinburgh, Scotland from August 15-17, 2022 

Abstract:

This presentation focuses on the intersections of nanotechnology with Augmented Reality Digital Technologies (ARDT’s) and transdisciplinary pedagogy. ARDT’s such as Metaverses have the potential to improve educator and learner accessibility to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for both teaching and learning. Nanotechnology encompasses the understanding of the fundamental physics, chemistry, biology, and technology of nanometre-scale objects, whereas nanoscience is the study of phenomena on the scale of 1-100 nanometers. Nano education calls for learners to conceptualize nanoscale objects and processes. Scientific advances in fields such as nanoscience and nanotechnology require a corresponding response in the educational community. Innovative pedagogical approaches intertwined with cross-curricular frameworks and ARDTs might help institutions, educators and learners to explore and learn about novel nanoscience and nanotechnology concepts. ARDTs digital capabilities encompass personalized education, simulations, interactive instructor-facilitated learning, AI-driven tutors, and hyper-realistic immersive experiences. Interactive visualization in ARDTs might become a potential solution for providing access to the nanoworld through active exploration of nanoscale concepts and principles. The presentation will close with recommendations on transdisciplinary pedagogy curriculum development and free educational resources including ARDTs for transdisciplinary nano education.

Keywords:
Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Nano education, Augmented Reality Digital Technologies (ARDT’s), Metaverses, immersive experiences

https://www.albedomeetings.com/2022/nanomeet#speakers

Touro University’s Graduate School of Education Bilingual Teacher Candidate Valerie Szuster: A Linguistic Case Study for EDDN 636

EDDN 636 Linguistic Structure of the English Language – Sociolinguistic Perspective

Course Description
This course provides an understanding of basic linguistic concepts and their applications for TESOL instruction. Students will be introduced to the essential concepts of language development and modern linguistic components that are relevant to first and second language pedagogy. Specific concepts include: phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, discourse
analysis, and the nature of regional and social variations in English and the relationship between dialects and ethnic identity. Students will explore the origins, diversity, and functions of human languages, in addition to the relationship between language and society. Students will also study key concepts of sociolinguistics in order to gain a solid understanding of the social and cultural dimensions of language. Includes 10 hours of fieldwork. 3 credits

Michele Goldin is an Assistant Professor of Bilingual Education and TESOL at Touro University Graduate School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition from Rutgers University. Her research broadly focuses on child bilingualism. As a heritage speaker of Spanish herself, she strives to increase our understanding of bilingual development with direct implications for successful academic outcomes, language policy and pedagogy, as well as bilingual and dual-language education.

Valerie Szuster is a 7th and 8th grade World Languages Teacher at Richard R. Sherman Great Neck North Middle School. She is of Argentine and Colombian descent, and speaks 4 languages: English, Spanish, French, and Hebrew! She earned her BA in French Secondary Education from New York University and is currently completing her MS in TESOL at Touro University.

Dr. Michele Goldin: “Mrs. Szuster’sfieldwork project, a case study, shows a keen understanding of the foundations of research. For the project, she collected a speech sample from an ELL, analyzed two areas of language in which the student encountered some challenges (phonetics and syntax), designed and implemented an activity to address each of these challenges, and then reflected on the results of the activity.”

From a World Languages teacher’s perspective, I find myself using a lot of games, visuals, and TPR in the classroom, such as battleship, bingo, dominos, and Kahoot, to decrease the sense of fears, triggers to the affective filter, and increase students’ participation.

Touro University, Graduate School of Education
Bilingual Teacher Candidate Valerie Szuster

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin to present ‘Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: A Multidisciplinary Teaching Frontier’ for The Scientist 2nd Global Summit and Expo on Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (GSENN2022)

Nanoscience education, a multidisciplinary field, integrates diverse subjects such as surface science, electronics, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, medicine, energy storage, engineering, microfabrication, molecular engineering, and more.

I am pleased to announce that I will be presenting Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: A Multidisciplinary Teaching Frontier for The Scientist will be hosting the 2nd Global Summit and Expo on Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (GSENN2022) in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 13–15 June 2022

Abstract

As part of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), the multi-disciplinary fields of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology hold the promise to profoundly change the way humanity lives, works and relates to one another. Nanoscience education, a multidisciplinary field, integrates diverse subjects such as surface science, electronics, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, medicine, energy storage, engineering, microfabrication, molecular engineering, and more. Molecular sciences are poised to become a gateway to the future, promising advances from medical diagnostics to climate change. While there are nanoscience research centers such as the NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Networks, Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSECs), National Nanomanufacturing Networks, few educational programs exist locally and globally spanning across the full spectrum of educational levels from K–12 to postgraduate studies. Corporations, educational institutions, and education ministries alike are exploring frameworks and technological tools to facilitate STEM learning in schools and beyond. App innovation and gamification, digital literacy, VR and AR, SDP, and collaborative learning are leading educational trends in the 4IR. One characteristic that these new learning technologies share is that by enabling real-time behavior modification, knowledge transfer and learning can occur simultaneously. “The AI challenge is not just about educating more AI and computer experts, although that is important. It is also about building skills that AI cannot emulate. These are essential human skills such as teamwork, leadership, listening, staying positive, dealing with people and managing crises and conflict” [Owen, 2017: para. 2]. The US Department of Education’s mission statement focuses on promoting “student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering educational excellence and ensuring equal access” [US Department of Education, 2021].

Nanoscience and nanotechnology will change interpreting the world and reshape educational philosophies while altering the pedagogies that underlie them. Economic growth, the durability of society, and sustainability for the 21st century and beyond need to be supported through a system of education that can anticipate societal and global changes. Therefore, it will be necessary to transform the modes of delivery that are part of the operations of educational institutions worldwide. Looking forward, corporations, educational institutions, and countries must extend the scope of their collective educational ambitions beyond classic declarative learner knowledge to the nurturing of the complex and creative processes of learners, coupled with digital literacy in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

This presentation focuses on cross-curricular learning models, virtual and augmented reality labs, professional teacher development, and free educational resources aimed at promoting student awareness of nanoscience and nanotechnology as well as providing advanced learning and skills development.

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin

Keywords: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, educational transformation, pedagogical frameworks, 21st-century education, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Augmented and Virtual reality Labs

References

[1] Committee On Stem Education of the National Science & Technology Council. (2018, 12). Charting a Course for Success: America’s Strategy for STEM Education. Charting a Course for Success: America’s Strategy for STEM Education. from STEM-Education-Strategic-Plan.pdf

[2] Owen, J. (2017, 12 11). Education must transform to make people ready for AI. Financial Times. https://www.ft.com/content/ab5daa64-d100-11e7-947e-f1ea5435bcc7