TOURO TESOL Candidate Carmen Montoya’s contribution to EDPN 673: Methods and Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language

EDPN 673: Methods and Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language is a fully online course. Every week my TESOL candidates participate in a discussion forum answering questions on their readings and responding to their peers. This week’s DB assignment: After reading: Academic Language and ELLs: What Teachers Need to Know

Please answer the following questions:

1. Have you had any students who were proficient in social language but struggled with academic language?

If so, how did their social and academic language use differ?
Did anything in their language abilities surprise you?
What are some examples that could be used to compare social and academic language in your classroom?
2. Based on what you now know about academic language, what kinds of support do you think Carlos needs in his chemistry class? Do you have any ideas on how Mrs. Wilson can support his written academic language?

3. What are cognates?

List 10 cognates that YOU might use in YOUR classroom with YOUR student population.

Carmen Montoya is a career changer who decided to pursue a career in special education and TESOL to help better position students with special needs and language needs for academic success. As a child of first-generation New Yorkers, she started off as an English language learner herself.  Due to her background,  Ms.Montoya is familiar with the impact of special needs and linguistic limitations among others in her academic and social circles. Ms. Montoya states; “In light of these experiences, I hope to comprehensively help students overcome deficits academically as well as socially and emotionally by offering appropriate and creative supports to uniquely empower students during my teaching career.”

I am delighted to share Ms. Montoya’s contribution!

What is Language?

1. Have you had any students who were proficient in social language but struggled with academic language?
If so, how did their social and academic language use differ?

Yes, I have observed many instances where students are socially fluent and outwardly confident in their everyday English but seem at a loss when asked to apply content concepts to their written and oral assignments, such as applying the prefix sub- to root words to create and identify several other words. In this instance, students recognized some components of the exercises through their inventory of social language but remained limited and unable to complete the exercises if time and care had not been taken to expand upon this knowledge to create and implement academic language. An explanation that seemed helpful in connecting students’ social language to academic language in this instance was presented in the following manner: “How many know what a submarine or submarino is? And how about the subway?. [students answer ] Well just like we recognize that a submarine operates under water, and a subway is also located underground, we can deduce that the prefix sub, which both words share and is placed at the “beginning” of the root words marine and way, means “under”. In this example, some also recognized the word submarino, meaning a submarine in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. This is an example of a cognate, a word that is similar in spelling and meaning in other languages as in English.” As one can see, students were able to review words they understood one way, to then use them in several other ways to ultimately expand their knowledge of content vocabulary, that can be applied to any number of subjects.
By initially guiding students through words used socially, such as submarine and subway- building “existing background knowledge,” students were better able to start appreciating how their social and academic languages are tied in together (Breiseth, 2019). Students can also begin to recognize how their everyday language and experiences can be used to many times, help decipher their academic objectives. They can extend their knowledge of a submarine and subway from “a ship” and “the train” to two words with the sub- prefix that can now help one figure out the meaning and use of other words such as submerge, submission, subvert etc. in their reading, writing and more developed dialogues.
Did anything in their language abilities surprise you?
Honestly, I approach students as vessels of untapped potential and experiences. Many English language learners may remain close to their family cultures and languages, as well as observant of the marked differences and nuances within the US culture and English language, in comparison to their native language. I am never really surprised that students tend to know and understand more than many realize. They just need help putting that ever-growing knowledge to work in the classroom. Many times, students are very knowledgeable and proficient in their first language, even able to read and write in it, so they will carry over those writing styles, or pace themselves in practicing English as they pace their speech in their first language. This observation reinforces my need to pace my own speech and to be intentional in my enunciation among students. In hindsight, I would have to say that what may most surprise me, if nothing else, is how much learners make it a point of imitating teachers in their mannerisms, pronunciation, and expressions at times. As I am very expressive in my exchanges, I have caught some of the students I have worked with, spontaneously imitating my gestures, expressions, and intonations. Although flattering and silly at times, my ultimate hope in these situations is that students learn to effectively use such elements to express themselves more effectively in English.
What are some examples that could be used to compare social and academic language in your classroom?
Recently, I facilitated a lesson with a group of fifth-graders where we had to read, discuss and interpret a poem by an author Kwame Alexander, titled “Here’s What I Remember,” to then develop a general response about what the poem was about, using the kernel writing strategy. The strategy sought to expand a simple response about this poem being about “childhood memories” (the kernel) to a more thought out, expanded response using the writing prompts: who, what, where, when, why and how (the means to create popcorn so to speak that would result from the processed kernel). When asking the prompts at first, the learners were quick to associate the purpose of the poem as being about holidays, such as Thanksgiving and Christmas, childhood memories and good times (social language). It was clear that an illustration of the poem showing happy family reunions, road trips, treats and games etc. would automatically elicit from students daily associations of what they assumed was the most obvious and most important purpose of the poem, to remember good times as one is growing up. After a guided discussion that looked more closely at the poem, however, students began to develop a more critical eye and understanding of what other elements the poem was trying to transmit about the “good times,” such as the family memorabilia, amusement park thrills, as well as the less than pleasant moments of paternal discipline and bittersweet memories of loved ones at their best and after their passing etc. In this process, the parameters of students’ social language expanded into more descriptive and insightful concepts that required academic language such as childhood memories and experiences, senses such as sights, sounds and smells, reminiscing, the lessons learned in the happy and sad times etc. In this case, the final response transitioned from This poem is about childhood memories and good times into a more clear and complete response of the poem’s meaning: This poem is about the author Kwame Alexander’s (who) childhood experiences (what) on the road and at families’ homes (where) as he was growing up (when) to share his happy and sad memories (why) by describing sights, sounds and smells (how). As one can see, in the final result, learners expanded their thinking and considered a broader selection of academic vocabulary, which they were then able to use in a complete sentence which was not too long or limited in scope- they ultimately began “sounding smart” (Breiseth, 2019).

2. Based on what you now know about academic language, what kinds of support do you think Carlos needs in his chemistry class? Do you have any ideas on how Mrs. Wilson can support his written academic language?
To better equip Carlos in understanding and applying the content successfully, I would ensure that Carlos is able to preview the main concepts of the lesson by providing him definitions with visuals and cognate equivalents, as well as their use in the proper context. I would go over the terms and concepts orally so that he would be able to not just visually recognize them, but also grasp how the concepts sound and are spoken. Cognates would be incredibly instrumental in this case as the learner may speak Spanish and many terms in the sciences are derived from Latin. I would also allow the student to respond orally and give him credit for those responses if I observed he was really struggling with writing out his responses. I would also provide graphic organizers and sentence starters to help Carlos frame his thoughts with the proper terms and syntax, as well as pair him up with more proficient readers and writers for shared in-class assignments to allow students to scaffold each other in comprehension and language. These are examples of steps that would ensure that all four language domains would be included in Carlos’ instruction: “reading, writing, speaking and listening” (which would build upon Carlos’ strong academic speaking and listening skills) and further his academic language development. (Breiseth, 2019). Finally, I would reach out to his homeroom teacher to discuss additional ESOL supports and placement.

3. What are cognates?
Cognates are words from different languages that are pronounced similarly and written in ways that resemble each other, with close meanings. Cognates are usually derived from a similar origin, such as Greek and Latin, and at times, one cognate is derived from another-day modern language, when the word is adopted by a second language. Garden in English, for example, is derived from Garten in German, both meaning a garden.

List 10 cognates that YOU might use in YOUR classroom with YOUR student population.

I would generally use English and Spanish cognates because on a practical level, it would benefit the large Spanish speaking English language learner student population as well as easily translates for speakers who share Latin-derived vocabulary in their first language such as Italian, French, Portuguese and Romanian speakers. This, of course, is not always the case, but can be many times.
Ten cognates I would consider, as they can be applied more broadly to clarify meaning in academic language are:

English Spanish
1. communication comunicación
2. family familia
3. explore explorar
4. analyze analizar
5. element elementos
6. geography geografía
7. equivalent equivalente
8. astronomy astronomia
9. economy economia
10. multiply multiplicar

Source:. Breiseth, L. (2019). Academic Language and ELLs: What Teachers Need To Know. Colorin Colorado. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Martin Luther King, Jr., and Ludwig van Beethoven: Radiant Stars of Love and Brotherhood

Hearing Beethoven’s ode to joy theme, intended as a musical representation of universal brotherhood, built an emotional bridge to MLK’s clarion call to embrace “radiant stars of love and brotherhood.”

The article Martin Luther King, Jr., and Ludwig van Beethoven for the Washington Post was born on my birthday, January 1st, 2020. While rereading Martin Luther King, Jr.’s letter from Birmingham jail, I wondered how to connect  MLK’s clarion call to embrace the “radiant stars of love and brotherhood” to my own life.  It was at this precise time that  Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125 started playing on the radio. Beethoven’s only vocal symphony is a statement of yearning for freedom in the repressive political environment of Europe after the Congress of Vienna and celebrates ”All people become brothers, Where thy gentle wing abides.“  Hearing Beethoven’s ode to joy theme, intended as a musical representation of universal brotherhood, build an emotional bridge to MLK’s clarion call to embrace “radiant stars of love and brotherhood.”

Conductor Yutaka Sado directs a 10,000-person chorus singing Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy” in Osaka, Japan.


Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, Digital Technologies, and Blockchain: Musings on Education and Language Acquisition in the Digital Age by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin

Gen Z and Gen Alpha continue to drive the expansion of augmented reality digital technologies (ARDTs) into all industries from corporate environments and marketing to health care, from gaming to language acquisition. Location-independent virtual environments hold the promise of exponential expansion beyond the brick-and-mortar presence of schools, colleges, universities, and other institutions of learning, such as virtual schools and universities.


It is my great pleasure to share  my newest publication “Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, Digital Technologies, and Blockchain: Musings on Education and Language Acquisition in the Digital Age”, JAN 16, 2020by LONDON-TVin BUSINESS

Artificial Intelligence, Augmented Reality, Digital Technologies, and Blockchain: Musings on Education and Language Acquisition in the Digital Age

Access and Equity: Computers for Schools Burundi


It was a true honor to have ICSEI 2020 choose “Access and Equity: Computers for Schools Burundi”, for one of the Innovate sessions.

Computers For Schools Burundi, a non-profit organization, is registered in the Republic of Burundi since March 15, 2012 RN: 530/386. The principal goals are modernizing the Burundi education system by having computers and computer education in all 18 provinces by 2025 to enable access of computer technology to 80% of all pupils, students, and teachers in Burundi.

Information technology training programs are the key to digital entrepreneurship and innovation, ensuring that future generations of Burundians take part in the global digital economy in ways that are successful and sustainable.

To further these goals, the Burundi Government has set up the Five Schools of Excellence project, with the goal to prepare their youth to become future leaders serving in the public and private administration, scientific research centers, and digital innovators.
The “Five Schools of Excellence” are chosen throughout the country with the selection criteria of students based on the national exam for the highest scoring students of six grades in all elementary schools of Burundi. Computers For Schools Burundi has partnered with the Ministry of Education to facilitate these important goals for the well-being of future generations in Burundi.

Attached is a part of my ICSEI 2020 presentation.

WordPress Computers for Schools Burundi_01072020




Case Study in SLA by Touro TESOL Candidate Elcidana Camacho for EDDN 639 – Trends and Current Issues in Second Language Acquisition 

The value of field case studies for TESOL teacher education lies in their potential to create an authentic and safe forum for reflection that can help both novice or experienced teachers to observe, analyze and reflect on real world TESOL environments and student learning.

The value of field case studies for TESOL teacher education lies in their potential to create an authentic and safe forum for reflection that can help both novice or experienced teachers to observe, analyze and reflect on authentic TESOL environments and student learning.

Ms. Elcidana Camacho is a graduate student at Touro College, GSE, majoring in TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages).  As an immigrant student herself, she recognizes the value of providing high-quality education to English Language Learners.  Currently, Ms. Camacho teaches Second-grade bilingual education at a New York Public School.

Case Study SLA Touro Course EDDN 639 – Trends and Current Issues in Second Language Acquisition 


Immigrants come to this country in the search of a better future not just for them but for their children.  They arrive at a strange and unknown country facing challenges day after day yet the dream of seeing their children succeed fuels their continuous drive.  Yet, the children also face daily challenges, they have to learn a new language that will be the road to success in their new country.  The learning experiences these ELLs will encounter will depend on many factors, but one crucial factor will be on how TESOL certified educators support them in their Second Language Acquisition.

For this case study, I chose one student named David (pseudonym).  David is a second-grade student who is repeating the grade.  He came to the United States for Honduras three years ago with his whole family.  David is placed in a bilingual second-grade class that encompasses 26 English Language Learners (ELLs). From the twenty-six ELLs, six of them are at the entering stage of language acquisition, one at the emerging stage, four at the transitioning stage, and fifteen at the expanding stage. David is at the entering stage.

The bilingual second-grade class David attends is a very welcoming and colorful classroom.  It is decorated with paw prints all over the classroom, and in every wall, there are anchor charts and students’ work proven the learning students have been exposed to during this school year. The front wall displays a flexible grouping chart with students’ groups for reading, writing, and math.  It also shows the current Units of studies for each subject, vocabulary and success criteria. Furthermore, there is a daily agenda with the flow of the day at which students constantly look at to know what to expect next. In the back of the classroom, it can be appreciated the writers’ gallery with writings students have been done so far, constructive feedback provided by the teacher, and pictures of the talented writers. In addition, the atmosphere of the classroom seems to be very safe and engaging. Ms. R., David’s teacher, utilizes chants to call students’ attention and transition routines.

I chose David for my case study because he is at the entering stage of language acquisition, he has already passed the silent period and started to get more comfortable with the target language. In addition, David has a strong literacy foundation in his native language, and I wanted to observe how this strong foundation influences second language acquisition and analyze how David utilizes the target language and interacts with it in different areas of learning. I am a big fan of Stephen Krashen’s theory of language acquisition. My purpose for this paper is to observe and analyze how the Five Hypothesis of Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition are presented in David’s English language acquisition: 1-The Acquisition-Learning Distinction 2. The Natural Order Hypothesis 3. The Monitor Hypothesis 4. The Input Hypothesis, and 5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis (Masciantonio, 1988, pg. 2) (Krashen, 1982, pg. 16).


The five observations for this case study were scheduled for five days. The observations were conducted in five different areas which were: 1-Read-Aloud combined with writing about reading, 2- Math, 3-Writing, 4- Social Studies, and 5- Phonics.  Previously to the first observation, a conversation was held with the teacher, Ms. R., about the student to be observed, which days would be the best to come to the classroom, what areas to observe, and how the observation would be conducted while in the classroom. I was also informed by Ms. R. about David’s background, his reading level, English acquisition level, and ways she had supported him in his L2 acquisition. The following paragraph summarizes this information.

According to Ms. R, David is at reading at level J which is at second-grade level for this time of the school year.  He was held back last year in second grade; therefore, this is his second year in this grade. When David started second grade, he was reading at level D, but when the September running records were conducted, he went from level D to level J. The teacher explained that David has good comprehension, but he still needs a lot of support with accuracy and fluency. Furthermore, Ms. R. teaches Math in Spanish, she mentions that David’s Math skills are above second-grade expectations, for this reason, Dave is sent daily to third grade during first period for Math Review and Problem of the Day. During Math Workshop, David’s work is more challenging than his peers’ work.  He also works with peers who need extra support in math. According to Ms. R., David is very social and outgoing.  He does not hesitate when sharing or defending his thinking.

 During the observations, I sat at the end of the classroom because I thought was the best way to observe and not be in the middle of the students’ learning.  Also, I did not want the students or David to suspect I was there to observe someone. 

Observation Description:

First Session: I observed a Read-Aloud about sharks and writing about reading combined. Ms. R. read two chapters about sharks one about Sharks’ body parts and another chapter about baby sharks.  During the read aloud, Ms. R. utilized picture vocabulary words, and plenty turn and talk, and sentence starters to discuss the main topic, supporting details, and keywords.  Some of the sentence starters include: “The main topic of this section is…”  One detail is…/Another details is…” “One important word I notice is…” “I think this word means…” I noticed David was engaged during the entire Read-aloud, raising his hand to share, and interrupting his peers when they were talking.  I noticed; Ms. R. encouraged students to use complete sentences when sharing their thinking. I was able to observe many times David looking at the sentence starters when communicating his thinking. After the read aloud, students were sent to their desk and complete writing about reading which includes to find the main topic and supporting details of the chapter about baby sharks.

Second Session: a math lesson.  Ms. R teaches math in Spanish. In the lesson, students were learning how they can subtract by counting on. Ms. R. modeled students how she used a number line to subtract 86-19 by counting on.  The teacher started with 19 and added 1 to get to a benchmark number (20), then she skipped counting by tens (6 times) until she reached 80 and finally added 6 ones to get to 86. After, Ms. R. went back to count the tens and the ones she added to count from 19 to 86.  Then, students were asked to solve 95-27. David was the first student to finish the task.  He even solved it using two other strategies students have learned previously. Ms. R. asked students to turn and talk to their partners to explain the steps they took to solve the problem, then some students were selected to share with the class, David was one of the students.  When communicating his process, David used complete sentences and the academic vocabulary of the unit. After the mini-lesson, students were sent to centers and a small group stay with the teacher.  David was assigned to go to the error analysis center, in which he was to guide the small group discussion analyzing the error and possible solutions.

Third Session: Social Study lesson. The lesson consisted of how citizens can create a change in their community by being responsible and following the rules in their community. Ms. R placed four feelings one in each corner of the classroom (Happy, excited, sad, and mad), then she read some statements, and students moved to a corner that reflected their feeling about the statement the teacher read to them. After, students were given the opportunity to discuss why they experienced those feelings when they heard the statements. After the discussion, Ms. Ruiz introduced the “What Should We Do?” template.  She modeled to the students how to use it. She took the statement “Students fool around during lesson” and wrote it under the section “Instead of”, then she modeled filling out the section about “We Can…” section in the template with possible solutions. Each student was given a paper with a statement to complete in their sits. I observed David discussing with classmates in his table. Then, I sat quietly for a while and then suddenly started writing and drawing the annoying situation and the possible solution.

Fourth Session: Writing.  The lesson was about how writers help their readers create a picture in their minds by including descriptive words. For this lesson, Ms. R. modeled how revising her nonfiction book by adding descriptive words.  For the lesson, she displayed an anchor chart with types of descriptive words students could use such as colors, shapes, texture, size, and appearance. David reread his book and added one descriptive word in a chapter of his book. He then got up and grabbed a new booklet to start a new book.  Ms. R. called to do a small group including David to practice the same elaboration strategy. David was able to find another place in his writing that he would like to add descriptive words, but it made little sense.  Ms.  R. suggested to David to reread his chapter to see if his choice made sense.  She stayed quiet for a moment, and Ms. R. asked him to tell her what he wanted to write in Spanish.  She translated the descriptive words in English and David added his best choice to his writing.

20180305_111756 (2)

Fifth Session: The last lesson observed was a Phonic lesson. Students were learning about homophones To-Two-Too.  Ms. R. began the lesson by showing students a video about homophones.  Then, she continued the lesson by reading a sentence that used the tree ways to use the three words, “Two friends went To the candy shop and ate Too many candies.”   Then, students worked with a partner to fix a paragraph where the homophones were used incorrectly.  Finally, students created three sentences using the three homophones.  David took risks sharing sentences with the homophones. He celebrated when got it correct and smiled when it was wrong.  However, getting his contributions wrong, did not seem to stop him from sharing again because he kept trying and even sharing without being called to share.


In this portion of the paper, I will analyze each one of Krashen’s Hypotheses of L2 acquisition based on what I observed on David.  David is at the Entering stage of SLA.  He has passed the silence period and just started to take risks with the target language. Krashen (1982) states that there are two separate and independent systems of developing competence in a L2, the acquired system and the acquisition system. The first system is very similar to the process children experience when acquiring their first language. They are focused not in the form of their utterances because they are using the language to communicate (pg. 17). David was eager to take part in class using the target language, even when Ms. R. restate what he said or encouraged him to repeat using complete sentences, this did not prevent David to communicate his messages. David is gradually learning the rules of the L2. Ms.  R. encourages him to use complete sentences and provide sentence starters to support David.  This happens when speaking and writing in English.

Krashen’s Natural hypothesis believes that the acquisition of language happens in a predictable order (Masciantonio, 1988, pg. 2). In the acquisition of English, learners tend “to acquire certain grammatical morphemes, or functions words earlier than others such as -ing, and -s to mark the plural…while the third person singular marker /s/ were typically acquired much later” (Krashen 1982, pg. 18). While David was writing his ‘All About Dogs’ book, I noticed in his introduction page he tried to grab his readers’ attention by including a question, introducing the topic, and inviting the readers to continue reading the book. David stated the question using the auxiliary verb Do, he used the suffix -ing correctly; however, he struggled in the middle of the book using descriptive words correctly and in the right order. Krashen believes every person acquires a second language in a predictable order throughout four stages (Escamilla K. & Grassi E., 2000, pg.6), I believe Dave is at the third stage. He is using simple sentences, but according to Ms. R., he has been trying using more complex sentences.  I witnessed how David engaged in longer conversations with peers and utilized different verb forms, even though they were not always right.  His writing still shows many grammatical errors.

The Input Hypothesis proposes that ELLs will move forward in the target language if the input (language) is comprehensible. It is the most important source for L2 acquisition. Ortega (2009) explains that L2 learners acquire comprehensible input through listening to oral messages that speakers communicate to them,ands through reading written texts that surround them; for instance, street signs, personal letters, books, etc. Furthermore, the author mentions that L2 learners make sense of the messages if the content is personally relevant to them (Pg. 59). There are many ways teachers can support their ELLs to make the content comprehensible for them. The only class I observed in David’s native language was Math, the rest were all in English. Something I noticed is the importance of using strategies to support ELLs, but most importantly, to make the content comprehensible for them. Ms. R. used visuals such as videos, picture vocabulary cards, anchor charts, native language, sentence starters, group work, to support not just David, but all her ELLs. I witnessed how all these strategies supported David in understanding the content being taught and provided opportunities for him to output the newly gainedd knowledge. I need to highlight, that there was a moment David seemed not to understand the meaning of a keyword (pups) Ms. R. introduced (in this moment she did not have a picture) in the read-aloud. He raised his hands and asked, “is that like a baby shark? A word to call a baby shark, just like we use cubs to name baby wolves.” David negotiated the meaning of something he was confused with.  Ortega (2009) explains that “noticing can be driven from within the learner, as when she struggles to put a sentence together and express her thoughts and, in the process, discovers something new” (pg. 64). The author adds that noticing can also be encouraged by external means such as through a lesson by a teacher, a question or reaction from an interlocutor.

Krashen’s Affective Hypothesis emphasizes that “all people possess a ‘filter’ which moves into one of two positions, low or high” (Escamilla & Grassi, 2000, pg.10). A Low filter will allow the SLA, this occurs when the ELLs are part of a safe learning environment free of stress, pressure, or judgment. On the other hand, the high filter will prevent language acquisition from happening because of a stressful learning environment (pg. 10). Krashen (1982) mentions that three affective variables can affect language acquisition: Motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. As I observed David, I could infer that Ms. R. has created a safe learning environment in which David feels safe, motivated and self-confident. He knows that he can take risks with the target language and will not be judged, but challenged and supported to improve in his language acquisition, but also academically.


As a Touro TESOL graduate student, I learned many theories and strategies about teaching and supporting ELLs. I try to apply many of them, but many times I just don’t have the time to reflect on them and how they are supporting my ELLs on the spot.  While teaching, I’m looking for understanding, trying to make the content comprehensible and expecting an output that demonstrates the acquisition of the new knowledge. However, while observing David, I put together all these language acquisition hypotheses and how they related to David’s language acquisition. Most of them were present in David’s SLA stage, and in fact, they explained why David master some areas and some haven’t yet. I even spoke with his teacher about Krashen’s hypotheses and we spent a long time analyzing the Natural and Input Hypotheses and connecting with David.  Together, we decided some ways to better support David in his language acquisition. As teachers, we get so much on our plate, but we cannot forget why we became educators of ELLs, we need to always make them our priority and provide them the best support in the acquisition and learning of the new language.















Escamilla K. & Grassi E. (2000) Brief Description of Second Language Acquisition.

Professional Development Resource Series, “Second Language Acquisition”, BUENO

Center, University of Colorado, Boulder.

Krashen, S. (1982) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.  Retrieved from

Masciantonio, Rudolph (1988) Stephen Krashen and the Classical Languages. The Classical Journal, Vol. 84, No. 1 (Oct. – Nov., 1988), pp. 53-56.  Retrieved from

Ortega, L. (2009). Understanding Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Hodder Education.




Teaching as an Act of Love as Featured in The American Reporter

As an assistant professor and practicum coordinator in the Graduate School of Education at Touro College, my focus is on Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), guiding prekindergarten through Grade 12 teachers certified in New York State to develop the professional skillsets needed to effectively teach and communicate with diverse student populations. My goal is that teachers not only acquire teaching methodologies in second language acquisition but also understand that language is the carrier of the intangible heritage of each nation.

Teaching as an acto of love picMy article Teaching as an Act of Love was just published in The American Reporter.

See the Chinese Version as featured in China Weekly.