Ethical, Legal, and Fair Use Issues in Copyright or Can I do this?

20160831_134638An overview of Copyright and Fair Use Issues for Students Preparing to enter College by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin

Copyright issues are nothing new under the sun.  The Statute of Anne; April 10, 1710, shows that fair use and copyright issues started almost simultaneously with the proliferation of printing presses: “Whereas printers, booksellers, and other persons have of late frequently taken the liberty of printing, reprinting, and publishing, or causing to be printed, reprinted, and published, books and other writings, without the consent of the authors or proprietors of such books and writings, to their very great detriment, and too often to the ruin of them and their families: for preventing, therefore, such practices for the future…” The Statute of Anne complete text.

I am fascinated with fair use issues which directly relate to linking to other sites.  The question is why CNN, or Time, or Ticketmaster, would object to a link to their page.

“Isn’t the whole point of having a web page to attract users? These hyperlinks are like referrals — and one rarely hears of one party suing another for sending customers to their store. What’s going on here? In a word — advertising (and advertising dollars). In both suits, plaintiffs are asserting that the way that defendants link to their page deprives the plaintiffs of advertising revenue that is properly theirs. TotalNews, for example, surrounds its web page with a “frame” — a border that appears on the screen that contains advertising sold by TotalNews (or other messages that TotalNews wants you to see). Things get interesting now: if, say, you click on the link to ABC’s web page, you will indeed see the ABC page — but the TotalNews border continues to sit there, showing you the advertising that TotalNews has sold (which squeezes any advertising that ABC may contain into a smaller area on your screen). Similarly, Ticketmaster asserts that Microsoft, by linking to the Ticketmaster website, “has gained revenue from advertising made a part of Microsoft’s website, depriving Ticketmaster of favorable advertising business” and that its actions constitute “electronic piracy.” An Introduction to Copyright Law 

Yet, a process can not copy written. So, is CPR a process? When IS something a process? But the questions go deeper.

Works for Hire

Let’s take a look at the idea and concept of  Work For Hire. In An Introduction to Copyright Law, it is stated, “copyrightable material created by an individual in the course of employment is considered to be a work for hire. Ownership of the copyright vests automatically in the employer.”

What does this mean? Who owns the lessons or any original works that were developed for classes?  Are these lessons and creative output the property of the school or district one was employed by? Or if one is a Masters student researching at a college, is that research now the universities property and if one changes programs does that research now becomes untouchable by its creator?  Is a student researcher who pays for the privilege to study not allowed to share or even quote their work? What happens if the student or teacher puts a Creative Commons license on their work?

Reading Understanding Copyright Law by Marshall A. Leaffer will help you to either become more confused or gain a better understanding of the complexities regarding copyright issues.

What is the Creative Commons?

“A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.” Creative Commons license – Wikipedia

This infographic is an excellent way to get an overview of the traditional copyright process and the Creative Common Process.

The Creative Commons gives everybody the power to select their own license and tag their materials. 

The Creative Commons feature various ways one can legally control one’s work without taking the “extreme” route of completely denying remix or reuse of their content.

Digital Rights Management

How does Digital Right Management work?

Digital rights management, or DRM, is the term to try and limit the copying of music and movies. With new technologies, especially the digitization of movies and music, it is almost effortless to copy and distribute music and movies. This is a major issue regarding copyright issues, and millions of dollars are being lost by companies or creators of music, films, etc. Companies have tried to restrict the copying of their materials by putting code onto their CDs to confuse copying software. Instead of trying to find people who have violated the law, companies are seeking to make it harder to copy materials. The problem, of course, is the consumer might want to make copies of the material just for his/her own use. It is relatively easy to restrict the number of copies of a song, but what if the owner buys a new iPod. That owner has the right to that song, after all, they bought it! Sometimes the file can only be copied from the computer it was originally downloaded on to, but what if the computer got infected, or died?

Copyright issues are laws within a country, but the copying and distribution of materials happen across borders. International treaties, like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), try to address these complex issues.

Writing a paper and in need of public domain resources?

The  Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) offers plenty of resources and mimics some in-person museum experiences in a virtual setting.

The home page is divided into multiple components that help the viewer to get oriented to the site quickly and able to determine which option will get the viewer further into the website content. Drop down menus, and content links are well labeled and make choices clear and easily understood.

The central section on the HOME page in the top left is dedicated to advertising the newest exhibition which currently is the American Empire. It offers a scrolling slideshow of maps and other content that catch the viewer’s eye and encourage further exploration. Below it is a search box that boasts content of over 16,000,000 items. Currently, there are 32 different Exhibition topics to explore. The website states that:

“Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) Exhibitions are designed to tell stories of national significance using source materials from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States, including letters, photographs, posters, oral histories, video clips, sheet music, and more.” The Home page also offers News and Twitter feeds and provides examples of Apps that others have created using the data collections on the website.”

When looking for non-copyright pictures the following short video will help guide you:

Steven Davis Video: Finding “Free-to-Use” Pictures

Open Educational Resources – for everybody!

“Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.”
Open educational resources – Wikipedia

Erica Zimmer, a graduate student at Marlboro College for Professional and Graduate Studies explains OER’s in a short video.

Open Educational Resources Video by Erica Zimmer

Creative Commons – The more you know by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin

What does it all mean for Me? (The Student)

I believe everybody should make choices from Wikimedia and other CC sources. It is important to respect the work of others.   Taking the time and effort to use one’s own images whenever possible will add several layers of work.  Yet, the whole point of going to college is to create competency in writing, presentations, and knowledge. Copying others work is Plagiarism, not flattery!

Related image

 

 

 

 

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Saftey Procedures

PeoplePrepLogo2
Carbon Monoxide, an odorless deadly gas, can cause illness, permanent health damage, and death. It is formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as gas, coal, wood, and oil. Carbon monoxide is absorbed via the lungs into the bloodstream, where it replaces oxygen.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning First Aid
Persons who are affected by inhalation of carbon monoxide contaminated air must be seen by a physician as soon as possible.
Until the affected person is receiving care from a qualified medical practitioner the following treatment should be administered:
Move the patient to fresh air and loosen clothing
Open all windows

If unconscious:
Call 911
If breathing stopped: Begin CPR at once

If conscious:
Avoid unnecessary exertion
Call 911 or Go to emergency room

Burning Fuels Safely:
Use fire-resistant materials on walls around wood stores.
Never use flammable liquids to start a fire.
Use only seasoned hardwood. Soft, moist wood accelerates creosote residue which sticks to the inner walls of the chimney. Creosote is a fire hazard and can cause a chimney fire.
Never burn cardboard boxes, trash or debris in your fireplace or wood stove
When building a fire, place logs at the rear of the fireplace on an adequate supporting grate
Never leave a fire in the fireplace unattended. Extinguish the fire before going to bed or leaving the house.
Soak hot ashes in water and place them in a metal container outside your house.

Safety Checklist:
Have a Carbon Monoxide alarm in your home.
Proper ventilation is the key.
Always use the right fuel.
Never leave an open fire unattended without a fireguard.
Always use a securely fitted fireguard when children are in the house.
Have your chimney cleaned once a year by a certified chimney sweeper.

Troubleshooting
If your appliance starts burning slowly, goes out frequently or if you smell or suspect fumes you should:
Open doors and windows.
Carefully put out the fire, or allow it to burn itself out.
Do not stay in the room any longer than necessary.
Do not attempt to relight the appliance until a professional has checked it.
NOTE: Overloading the fireplace with wood in an attempt to get a longer burn time contributes to creosote buildup.

TAKE THE QUIZ: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and your Saftey

 

Swiss-Russian import of Medical Products Policy Memo by International Affairs Student Eugene Kolesnikov

Here an excellent policy memo which grew out of my International Affairs Class at EF – Education First.

Policy Memo
To: Dr. Jasmin B. Cowin, International Affairs class
From: Eugene Kolesnikov
RE: Swiss-Russian import of medical products policy

Current situation in Russian-Swiss relations

The Russian-Swiss Joint Intergovernmental Commission on Trade and Economic Cooperation was established in January 1994. In July 2009, with the support of the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, a business council on cooperation with Switzerland was established.[3]
Nowadays, the state of Russian-Swiss relations is characterized by positive dynamics, having continuous support from political dialogue at the highest levels.[3]
Russia is a priority country of Swiss foreign policy. The two countries share many interests. As a member of the UN Security Council and the G-20, Russia is a major international player. Since the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in 2007, bilateral relations have developed significantly. The MoU defines the framework for systematic and closer cooperation in the areas of:
  • Foreign policy and security;
  • Justice, police, and migration;
  • Economics and science;
  • Education and cultural affairs.
Representatives of both foreign ministries meet regularly for consultations. There are close contacts at the parliamentary level too, with active parliamentary friendships groups in both countries. Since 2009, Switzerland has represented Russia’s interests in Georgia and Georgia’s interests in Russia, after the two countries broke off diplomatic relations.[2]
At the same time, the ties linking the business communities of both states are expanding and strengthening. It is quite evident from a large number of bilateral events such as meetings, forums, and conferences held at the trade mission level. Such events have already become traditional and are usually held in an atmosphere of mutual respect and desire to expand the frontiers of bilateral partnership.[3]
Russia’s exports to Switzerland primarily consist of minerals (50.5 percent), gemstones and precious metals (38.7 percent), chemical products (6.3 percent) and metals and metal products (2.5 percent). Imports from Switzerland include cars, equipment and vehicles (42.1 percent), chemicals (33.0 percent), food and agricultural raw materials (9.6 percent) and other products, mainly watches (9.0 percent), metals and metal goods (3.7 percent).[1]
Major Swiss investors in Russia include Nestlé (food industry), Asea Brown Boveri (high-voltage and low-voltage equipment for industrial production, construction, housing, and utilities) and Schindler (elevators and escalators). Over 600 companies with Swiss capital are registered in Russia. Some major Russian investors in Switzerland include the Renova Group, Rusal, and the SUAL Group.[1]
Currently, more than 600 companies with Swiss capital are operating in Russia, on the other hand, many Russian companies are working on the Swiss market. However, the volume of bilateral trade has been constantly growing, and this suggests that the potential for bilateral cooperation is far from exhausted. Russia and Switzerland are also brought together by a number of major investment projects, designed to be implemented in the years to come.[3]
First of all, we are talking about projects in such important spheres as science-intensive high-tech industries including energy, space, medicine, nuclear and IT-technology. In particular, the most well-known and highly advocated bilateral projects deal with innovation and nanotechnology issues.[3]
In the last several years experts observe increased imports to Russia of Swiss machinery and equipment, electronic goods, which is encouraged by the economic growth and stable demand on the Russian market.[3]
In 2014, relations between Russia and the West deteriorated due to the crisis in Ukraine. In late July, the EU and the US moved from targeted sanctions against specific individuals and companies toward measures against whole sectors of the Russian economy. Switzerland did not join the EU sanctions.[1]

Russian’s Ban on Medical Imports

Medvedev told Russian journalists a suggested bill to restrict imported medical devices and supplies would not be supported by his government unless treatment quality for patients could be maintained.[4]
The list of items suggested for the ban included everything from X-ray machines, defibrillators, incubators for newborns and prosthetic devices to crutches, bandages, and condoms.[4]
Russia’s medical community criticized the proposal for failing to first consult doctors and medical experts as Russian producers can not make the same quality of products or do not make them at all.[4]
Russia’s “import substitution” policy aims to encourage Russia’s domestic producers to develop supplies for markets now dependent on foreign imports. It was accelerated after western sanctions were put in place following Russia’s annexation of Crimea in neighboring Ukraine in 2014.[4]
Although the Ban on Medical Imports is not accepted yet, there is a positive dynamics in this direction, which indicates that it can happen in the nearest future. Before it happens, Russia has to be prepared for such a drastic change.

Proposal

Russia is a large market with great potential for Swiss companies. Switzerland is committed to creating optimal conditions for Swiss businesses and has an action plan on developing economic relations to achieve this. A bilateral mixed economic commission meets on an annual basis. The Swiss Business Hub, which is integrated within the Swiss embassy, advises Swiss companies intending to enter the Russian market and promotes Switzerland as a business location.[2]
According to Russian laws “Goods are considered to be of Russian origin if they are made or have been sufficiently processed in the country according to customs regulations that are applicable in Russia. A supplier is considered Russian if it is a legal entity registered in Russia (which can be fully foreign-owned, except in cases of specifically regulated sectors, such as media) or a Russian citizen.”[5]
Taking into consideration these two facts and the necessity of developing the Russian sector of medicine, I propose such Swiss companies like Novartis (Sandoz), Hoffmann-La Roche, Basilea Pharmaceutica, Actelion and Straumann to create assembly factories on the territory of Russia and, therefore, to gain a foothold in the Russian market.
Both Switzerland and Russia will benefit from it, which means that it is a win-win proposal:
  • Switzerland: Swiss pharmaceutical industry will be expanded to Russian territory and, therefore, bring more profit and improve international relations between countries;
  • Russia: not mentioning the increase in the number of workplaces, Russia will improve the quality of the medical product which will allow Russia to finally accept the Ban on Medical Imports and not to depend on other countries in the field of medicine. Moreover, the Russian government will increase its budget with the taxes from new pharmaceutical companies.

REFERENCES 

[1]  Sputnik, “Russian-Swiss Relations: Facts and Details”, 8 Dec 2014,
[2] FDFA,“BilateralrelationsSwitzerland–Russia”, 8 Apr 2016,
[3]  MiroshnichenkoV., “Russian-Swisstraderelations”, Business Mir #22, Aug 2012,
[4]  VoaNews, “Russia’s PM Halts Ban on Medical Imports”, 3 Sep 2015,
 http://www.voanews.com/a/ russia-pm-halts-ban-on-medical-imports/2944103.html.
[5]  GoncharoffP., “AsTrumpPushes’MadeinUSA’, PutinPromotes Products ’Made 
in Russia’”, 16 Jan 2017, http://russia-insider.com/en/business/ri18556.
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 
 
CC BY-NC-ND
Posted 28th March by

EF Unversity Preparation Grammar Fair

Pedagogy: David A. Kolb – experiential learning.

David A. Kolb’s model of experiential learning can be found in many discussions of the theory and practice of adult education, informal education, and lifelong learning.  Much of the literature on experiential learning, as Peter Jarvis comments (1995: 75), ‘is actually about learning from primary experience, that is learning through sense experiences’.

The learning in this project with the Grammar Fair is geared towards students “creating” a teaching tool from scratch without technology. Here the learning process begins first with deep-diving into Grammar research to be able to teach the Grammar point.  Students use the FUMP model: Form, Use, Meaning, and Presentation.  Then, students create a trifold with the prime examples and teaching points.  The trifolds get showcased at the school-wide Grammar Fair where students now present and peer teach other students adding to free L2 use in an authentic situation.

 

A video Collage of the successful Grammar Fair at EF – Education First, NY