All of us who seek a full-time college teaching position sooner or later face the “demo” lesson. Here is mine!
An overview of Copyright and Fair Use Issues for Students Preparing to enter College by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin
Copyright issues are nothing new under the sun. The Statute of Anne; April 10, 1710, shows that fair use and copyright issues started almost simultaneously with the proliferation of printing presses: “Whereas printers, booksellers, and other persons have of late frequently taken the liberty of printing, reprinting, and publishing, or causing to be printed, reprinted, and published, books and other writings, without the consent of the authors or proprietors of such books and writings, to their very great detriment, and too often to the ruin of them and their families: for preventing, therefore, such practices for the future…” The Statute of Anne complete text.
I am fascinated with fair use issues which directly relate to linking to other sites. The question is why CNN, or Time, or Ticketmaster, would object to a link to their page.
“Isn’t the whole point of having a web page to attract users? These hyperlinks are like referrals — and one rarely hears of one party suing another for sending customers to their store. What’s going on here? In a word — advertising (and advertising dollars). In both suits, plaintiffs are asserting that the way that defendants link to their page deprives the plaintiffs of advertising revenue that is properly theirs. TotalNews, for example, surrounds its web page with a “frame” — a border that appears on the screen that contains advertising sold by TotalNews (or other messages that TotalNews wants you to see). Things get interesting now: if, say, you click on the link to ABC’s web page, you will indeed see the ABC page — but the TotalNews border continues to sit there, showing you the advertising that TotalNews has sold (which squeezes any advertising that ABC may contain into a smaller area on your screen). Similarly, Ticketmaster asserts that Microsoft, by linking to the Ticketmaster website, “has gained revenue from advertising made a part of Microsoft’s website, depriving Ticketmaster of favorable advertising business” and that its actions constitute “electronic piracy.” An Introduction to Copyright Law
Yet, a process can not copy written. So, is CPR a process? When IS something a process? But the questions go deeper.
Works for Hire
Let’s take a look at the idea and concept of Work For Hire. In An Introduction to Copyright Law, it is stated, “copyrightable material created by an individual in the course of employment is considered to be a work for hire. Ownership of the copyright vests automatically in the employer.”
What does this mean? Who owns the lessons or any original works that were developed for classes? Are these lessons and creative output the property of the school or district one was employed by? Or if one is a Masters student researching at a college, is that research now the universities property and if one changes programs does that research now becomes untouchable by its creator? Is a student researcher who pays for the privilege to study not allowed to share or even quote their work? What happens if the student or teacher puts a Creative Commons license on their work?
Reading Understanding Copyright Law by Marshall A. Leaffer will help you to either become more confused or gain a better understanding of the complexities regarding copyright issues.
What is the Creative Commons?
“A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.” Creative Commons license – Wikipedia
This infographic is an excellent way to get an overview of the traditional copyright process and the Creative Common Process.
The Creative Commons gives everybody the power to select their own license and tag their materials.
The Creative Commons feature various ways one can legally control one’s work without taking the “extreme” route of completely denying remix or reuse of their content.
Digital Rights Management
Digital rights management, or DRM, is the term to try and limit the copying of music and movies. With new technologies, especially the digitization of movies and music, it is almost effortless to copy and distribute music and movies. This is a major issue regarding copyright issues, and millions of dollars are being lost by companies or creators of music, films, etc. Companies have tried to restrict the copying of their materials by putting code onto their CDs to confuse copying software. Instead of trying to find people who have violated the law, companies are seeking to make it harder to copy materials. The problem, of course, is the consumer might want to make copies of the material just for his/her own use. It is relatively easy to restrict the number of copies of a song, but what if the owner buys a new iPod. That owner has the right to that song, after all, they bought it! Sometimes the file can only be copied from the computer it was originally downloaded on to, but what if the computer got infected, or died?
Copyright issues are laws within a country, but the copying and distribution of materials happen across borders. International treaties, like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), try to address these complex issues.
Writing a paper and in need of public domain resources?
The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) offers plenty of resources and mimics some in-person museum experiences in a virtual setting.
The home page is divided into multiple components that help the viewer to get oriented to the site quickly and able to determine which option will get the viewer further into the website content. Drop down menus, and content links are well labeled and make choices clear and easily understood.
The central section on the HOME page in the top left is dedicated to advertising the newest exhibition which currently is the American Empire. It offers a scrolling slideshow of maps and other content that catch the viewer’s eye and encourage further exploration. Below it is a search box that boasts content of over 16,000,000 items. Currently, there are 32 different Exhibition topics to explore. The website states that:
“Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) Exhibitions are designed to tell stories of national significance using source materials from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States, including letters, photographs, posters, oral histories, video clips, sheet music, and more.” The Home page also offers News and Twitter feeds and provides examples of Apps that others have created using the data collections on the website.”
When looking for non-copyright pictures the following short video will help guide you:
Open Educational Resources – for everybody!
“Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.”
Open educational resources – Wikipedia
Erica Zimmer, a graduate student at Marlboro College for Professional and Graduate Studies explains OER’s in a short video.
What does it all mean for Me? (The Student)
I believe everybody should make choices from Wikimedia and other CC sources. It is important to respect the work of others. Taking the time and effort to use one’s own images whenever possible will add several layers of work. Yet, the whole point of going to college is to create competency in writing, presentations, and knowledge. Copying others work is Plagiarism, not flattery!
Here an excellent policy memo which grew out of my International Affairs Class at EF – Education First.
Current situation in Russian-Swiss relations
- Foreign policy and security;
- Justice, police, and migration;
- Economics and science;
- Education and cultural affairs.
Russian’s Ban on Medical Imports
- Switzerland: Swiss pharmaceutical industry will be expanded to Russian territory and, therefore, bring more profit and improve international relations between countries;
- Russia: not mentioning the increase in the number of workplaces, Russia will improve the quality of the medical product which will allow Russia to finally accept the Ban on Medical Imports and not to depend on other countries in the field of medicine. Moreover, the Russian government will increase its budget with the taxes from new pharmaceutical companies.
Here a great resource for the Common App video tutorial by Evelyn Alexander. A major “Thank you” to Evelyn for letting me share this!
The Independent School and College Virtual Reality Interview App Jasmin B. Cowin
Jasmin B. Cowin, Ed.D.
THIS IS FICTITIOUS INVENTION SOLEY FOR MY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CLASS
Interviews for Independent Private Schools, Boarding Schools, and colleges are a source of anxiety for applicant students. The primary goals of this App are diminishing interview anxiety and creating a Virtual World Interview Camp.
All independent schools/colleges feature one universal, critical requirement – the admissions interview, be it by Skype or in person.
Students who apply to an independent school or college for admission are required to meet with an admissions officer in a one-on-one and/or small group setting. Admissions officers view their interactions with prospective students and their families as their number one priority. Schools place extreme value on personal interactions with new families. This Virtual Reality Educational Software program would prepare students for the interviews with Independent schools or colleges.
The function of the App would be Digital Data transformation by “slurping up” public data from around the web, run it through “proprietary school personality detection technology,” and spit out a detailed report on the school’s preferred style of communicating, standard questions, highly desirable student profile, style of teaching, school mottos etc. This app features part oppo research and part algorithmic astrology with the App not only creating a database of personalized standard and complex questions but also building a four-dimensional school/college VR personality profile. Applicants can then enter this four-dimensional world for touch-enable exploration. The App would feature VR sessions which “model” admissions interviews. The VR counselor will create vocabulary matrix for students to practice “Admission vocabulary.” The App would track progress, multi-dimensional and students would receive a Virtual Reality merit badge for every level of completed admission practice. The program will be able to screen/parse school websites and content for proprietary school coaching with personalized answer generation taking into consideration the student’s age and language ability (native-non-native speaker).
The App is designed to work with Oculus’ Touch to deliver the perfect multidimensional gestural and vocal interface simulating an admissions interview
Advanced Grammar is a University Preparation (UP) course offered on a rolling basis at the University Preparation Program. The UP program prepares students for successful entry into US Universities and Colleges.
Advanced Grammar and Scratch: 2 blocks at 80 minutes per week plus 15 minutes/monthly individual conferences.
This course introduces students to Advanced Grammar and Grammar-Based Teaching (GBT) and Scratch, block-based coding with a focus on the concept that the English language consists of predictable patterns of what we see, hear, speak and read. GBT helps learners discover the nature of language where students gain an understanding of Grammar concepts such as subordination and coordination; nouns and adjectives, subjects and verbs, clauses and phrases. Scratch, a block based, free coding program introduces computational and pattern thinking, analyzing subroutines, debugging, working in sequence, and creating unique projects. It is the most accessible tool teaching computational thinking for the modern problem solver. The Scratch component will introduce fundamental concepts of block-based programming, including variables and assignment, sequential execution, selection, repetition, control abstraction, and data organization.
Grammar is important not only for exemplary TOEIC, TOEFL, and SAT scores but also for “native” fluency and expression.
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
Think critically and analytically about language, rather than simply memorizing rules and lists
Analyze grammatical structures already studied
Recognize peripheral and borderline cases that are “exceptions to rules.”
Learn the procedures by which one can test one’s own grammatical hypotheses – or guesses – about language
Determine and understand the source of personal language difficulties
Make effective language choices
Parse and/or diagram sentences to prove that use dictates meaning
Identify the class to which a word belongs by using its form and function
Describe and explain a particular element of contemporary English in such a way that it is understandable and accessible to a universal audience by developing an online Scratch game.
Differentiate between the surface and deep structure meanings of word groups and parts of a sentence
Use fundamental concepts of block-based programming, including variables and assignment, sequential execution, selection, repetition, control abstraction, and data organization.
Create a unique Scratch presentation focused on one grammar point
Special Teacher Resources:
As a teacher and facilitator, I establish learning communities where we come to learn with each other and from each other in a collaborative process. Collaborative processes give rise to vibrant cultures of growth and development with the result of a harvest of student achievement filled with a growth mindset, mental flexibility, curiosity, risk taking and intrinsic motivation. My approach to teaching is student-centered with the aim to open the doors of knowledge not only empirically but emotionally as well.
By integrating Scratch and computational thinking into my Grammar course, I believe students will gain metacognitive process thinking which transcends route learning. Through computational thinking and exposure to Scratch students will learn to think recursively; reformulate a seemingly difficult problem into one which they know how to solve; reduct, embed, transform, and simulate; abstract and decompose by tackling a large complex task.
The notion of “literacy” was originally used to designate the ability to read and write, but its meaning was gradually extended. For example, UNESCO has used a wider definition, redefined by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Consortium in 2006 (focusing on scientific literacy) to introduce the idea of knowledge use and transfer and its applications to life situations, problem solving, and influencing decision-making processes as an indispensable part of subject competence. This knowledge application is not limited to subject-internal questions and not even to school-related issues, but extends to any future problem in life and any new learning situation.”
Technology is changing the context of education. Cultivating digital literacy is an important part of any L2 course. In today’s workplace, digital literacy is essential. But teaching and learning should go beyond access to basic tools. Students must learn to apply digital resources to creatively solve problems, produce innovative projects, and enhance communications to prepare for a career in any field. This grammar course encourages a dialogue between technological tools, computational thinking – Scratch and students to achieve grammatical and scientific literacy.
“is composed of at least three different areas of competence, namely knowledge (linked to language and epistemological competence), action (in terms of learning competence, procedural, communicative and social competence) and evaluation (aesthetic and ethical/moral competence). Based on this understanding of scientific literacy, the notion has developed across all subjects of a basic set of knowledge in a certain domain, of knowledge application, and a willingness to appropriate and follow the logic of each domain respectively. In that perspective, subject literacy becomes part of what is called Bildung in German, because the knowledge, skills, and attitudes, once acquired, can be linked and used in many different ways, while at the same time forming the material basis for individual development. This generalized notion of literacy in all subjects can help us understand the broad scope of what is meant by a “quality education” and particularly the role of language as a constitutive part of subject competence.”
The Experiential Learning Philosophy and authentic learning in a student-centered classroom are the cornerstones of my educational approach. My primary goals in teaching writing are: First, increasing students’ metacognitive awareness so that they better understand themselves as learners and enable students to take responsibility for their learning. Second, providing a clear lesson structure with objectives and aims for students. Third, improving students’ understanding of, and ability to use English accurately in speaking, writing and reading. My overarching goal is to develop communicative competence and modern problem-solving skills.