Xiao Sun, a Touro University Bilingual Certificate Candidate Thoughts on “What is Langauge?” for EDDN 637, Second Language Learners and the Content Areas

EDDN 637 Second Language Learners and the Content Areas: Students will become acquainted with and practice effective approaches, methods, and strategies for teaching and evaluating English language learners in the content areas (ELA, social studies, math and science). Throughout the course, students will explore the impact of culture and language on classroom learning. Special challenges in teaching and assessment in each content area will also be discussed. Includes 15 hours of fieldwork.

Xiao Sun started her career in the education field as a paraprofessional. She has worked in NYC District 25 for five years and holds a Master of Media and Governance from Keio University. Last year, she earned her Master of Early Childhood Education and Special Education from Touro University. She is a DOE-certified teacher with B-2nd general education and special education licenses. In addition, she pursues her bilingual advanced certificate with Touro University.

Discussion Boards in Touro University courses serve as an important way we establish ‘community’ with fellow classmates and me, the faculty. It’s how the cohort of learners ‘participate’ online to develop conversations by analyzing the posted questions and applying critical thinking skills. As this is a graduate program, I want to encourage the habit of citing references and require a reference section. Xiao Sun posted a thorough discussion board showcasing not only her grasp of the readings but also analysis and interpretation.

There is no one size fit all approach that could support all students learning. For different types of learners, we need to apply a different strategy to improve their L2 proficiency.

Xiao Sun, Touro University Bilingual Certificate Candidate

Discussion 2: What is Language? 

  1. Have you had any students who were proficient in social language but struggled with academic language? 

Most of my students are ELLs from kindergarten to second grade. Most of my teaching experiences are in self-contained classrooms or ICT classrooms. I haven’t had any students who were proficient in social language but struggled with academic language since most of them are younger children.  

2. Celce-Murcia Chapter edition 4 Chapter 1: 

What changes have occurred regarding the teaching of a) pronunciation, b) grammar, and c) vocabulary in the many approaches discussed in this chapter? Has there been a swinging of the pendulum in respect to the teaching of these areas? Why or why not? 

In the pre-twentieth -century, the key approaches are getting learners to use a language and getting learners to analyze a language. There are “the grammar-translation approach,” “the direct method,” and “the reform movement.” The grammar-translation approach emphasizes that “instruction is given in the native language of the students. There is little use of the target language for communication. The focus is on the forms and inflections of words. The result of this approach is usually an inability on the part of the students to use the language for communication.” (Kelly, 1969). The direct method is more focused on the ability to use rather than analyze a language. During the reform movement (1886), Henry Sweet, Wilhelm Vietor, and Paul Passy developed the International Phonetic Alphabet to establish the scientific rule that focused on teaching pronunciation and oral skills. (Howatt,2004)  

In the early and mid-twentieth-century, there is “the reading approach,” “the audiolingual approach,” and “the oral-situational approach” were proposed by linguists. According to West (1941), reading comprehension is the only language skill emphasized in the reading approach. Only grammar and helpful vocabulary for reading comprehension are taught. The audiolingual approach is proposed based on the principle of the reform movement and the direct method. This approach focuses on practicing sounds, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. The “oral-situation approach” focuses on the spoken language and provides the learners maximum opportunity to practice the target language. 

The recent approaches to language teaching are cognitive, affective, humanistic, comprehension, and communicative approaches. The cognitive approach emphasized that “language acquisition is viewed as the learning of a system of infinitely extendable rules based on meaningful exposure” (Chomsky, 1959,1965). The affective-humanistic approach emphasizes that “learning a language is a social and personal process” and a “positive social climate in the classroom” (Curran,1976) could support language learning. The comprehension-based approach argues that L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition and extends exposure and comprehension. Finally, the communicative approach aims to improve learners’ communication ability in the target language.  

The pendulum has been swinging for teaching these areas. Because we never know the best approach or method to support the L2 learning of our students. There is no one size fit all approach that could support all students learning. For different types of learners, we need to apply a different strategy to improve their L2 proficiency. In different periods, the purpose of learning L2 is also different. For example, in the early days, people paid more attention to whether they could understand the writing contents in the target language. In the mid-term days, people pay more attention to whether they can use the correct grammar and pronunciation in the target language. Now, we pay more attention to building up the learners’ ability to communicate in the target language. 

The recent approaches to language teaching are cognitive, affective, humanistic, comprehension, and communicative approaches. The cognitive approach emphasized that “language acquisition is viewed as the learning of a system of infinitely extendable rules based on meaningful exposure” (Chomsky, 1959,1965). The affective-humanistic approach emphasizes that “learning a language is a social and personal process” and a “positive social climate in the classroom” (Curran,1976) could support language learning. The comprehension-based approach argues that L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition and extends exposure and comprehension. Finally, the communicative approach aims to improve learners’ communication ability in the target language.  

3. Celce-Murcia Chapter edition 4 Chapter 2:  

How is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) related to other proficiency-based approaches to language teaching? 

There are three theoretical frameworks discussed.  

The first is the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Language standards (ACTFL). This framework has five components (the Five C’s model): communication, cultures, connections, comparisons, and communities.  By following this framework, learners are taught to focus on “what is the overall purpose and meaning of the texts, and what is cultural or other background knowledge is relevant?” and “what vocabulary or grammatical forms are involved, and what meanings are being conveyed by these?” (Celce-Murica, 2013) There are also three primary modes of communication cultivated by this proficiency-based approach: interpersonal, such like exchanging ideas; interpretive, such like understandings of content, and presentational, such like communicating through oral or written reports. 

The second framework is the Common European Framework of Reference for languages. (CEFR) According to Duff (2008), this framework “encourage learners, teachers, and teacher educators to collect evidence of learners’ proficiency and language learning biographies through various media, including multimedia personal learning portfolios and multilingual repertoire.” 

The third communicative, proficiency-based framework mentioned in this section is the Canadian Language Benchmark. (CLB) This framework is “based on a functional view of language, language use, and language proficiency.” (Pawlikowska-Smith,2002) Under this framework, teachers could assess students’ linguistic, textual, functional, and sociocultural competence to support them improve language skills. 

References 

Celce-Murcia, M. (2013). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Fourth  Edition. Heinle Cengage Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-1111351694. ISBN-10:  111135169 

Chomsky, N. (1959). Review of the book Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner. Language,  35,26-58  

Curran, C.A. (1976). Counseling-learning in second-language learning. East Dubuque, II,:  Counseling Learning Publication 

Duff, P. A. (2008). APEC second foreign language standards and their assessment:  Trends, opportunities, and implications. 

Kelly, L. G. (1969). Twenty-four centuries of language teaching. New York, NY:  Newbury House. 

Howatt, A.P.R. with H.G., Widdowson (2004). A history of English language teaching (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 

Pawlikowska-Smith, G. (2000). Canadian language benchmarks: Theoretical framework.  Ottawa, Canada: Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. 

West, M. (1953) A general service list of English words. Landon, UK: Longman, Green &Co. 

Reimagine and Redesign: Augmented Reality Digital Technologies & 21st Century Education by Jasmin (Bey) Cowin on Kindle Edition

Jasmin (Bey) Cowin, Ed.D., Assistant Professor and TESOL Practicum CoordinatorTouro University, Graduate School of Education, New York, NY Google Scholar Profile: Dr. Jasmin Cowin, Orchid ID: 0000-0002-0405-8774

Reimagine and Redesign: Augmented Reality Digital Technologies & 21st Century Education Kindle Edition

It is finally done! I published my essay on augmented digital reality technologies, big data, and the need for a teacher workforce on Kindle! The essay explores applications and educational use cases of augmented reality digital technologies for educational organizations during the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The Fourth Industrial Revolution requires vision, flexibility, and innovative educational conduits by governments and educational institutions to remain competitive in a global economy while simultaneously working towards new governance structures aimed to mitigate external interruptions and algorithmic biases by Artificial Intelligence algorithmic models. Educational organizations will need to focus on teaching in and for a digital age to continue offering academic knowledge relevant to 21st-century markets and changing labor force needs. Implementing contemporary disciplines will need to be embodied through learners’ active knowledge-making experiences while embracing ubiquitous accessibility. The power of Distributed Ledger Technology promises major streamlining for educational record-keeping, degree conferrals, and authenticity guarantees. Augmented reality digital technologies (ARDT) hold the potential to restructure educational philosophies and their underpinning pedagogies thereby transforming modes of delivery. Structural changes in education and governmental planning are already increasing through intelligent systems and big data. Reimagining and redesigning education on a broad scale is required to plan and implement governmental and institutional changes to harness innovative technologies while moving away from the industrial manufacturing labor force.
Keywords—Fourth Industrial Revolution, artificial intelligence, big data, education, Augmented Reality Digital Technologies, Distributed Ledger Technology

Unidos: Inclusivity for a Stronger Nation Hispanic Heritage Month 2022 – Resources for Hispanic Heritage Month, designed by Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin

What is in your Heritage Month 2022 Resources for Hispanic Heritage Month Toolkit? I designed an infographic as a contribution to all educators who would like to find more resources for Hispanic Heritage Month 2022.

“If you have an opportunity to make things better and you don’t, then you are wasting your time on Earth.”

Roberto Clemente

The PDF features clickable links.

Unidos: Inclusivity for a Stronger Nation – Celebrating National Hispanic Heritage Month 2022

Unidos: Inclusivity for a Stronger Nation – Celebrating National Hispanic Heritage Month 2022

Recognizing the achievements and contributions of Hispanic American champions who have inspired others to achieve success led me to discover new composers and artists and their music and art of Latin and Hispanic descent. Of course, my resource is only a beginning, “A Place to Start.”

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin is presenting at VOICE, The Event Focusing on the Conversational AI Community

Voice 2022 Logo

My topic: AI, Avatars and 21st Century Simulation Training for Educators

AI and intelligent systems are positioned to become change agents in education through ushering in profound changes in institutional administrative functions, systemic strategic planning, and program planning. Post-pandemic, the explosive growth of fully-accredited online degrees has also reached teacher education programs. However, any online program in teacher education needs alternative pathways to support teacher candidates who are required to complete practicum and fieldwork hours.

This lightning talk focuses on reviewing, contrasting, and framing two distinct immersive ecosystems. Mursion and simSchool. While both platforms offer immersive experiences simSchool is AI-driven while Mursion employs mixed reality simulations. Both provide preservice teachers a platform to practice and rehearse the art and skill of teaching within a controlled simulation setting using avatars. Insights on evidence-based practices by teacher candidates are generated through data from both AI and candidates’ in-world experiences. Such data aggregation offers institutions informed decision-making through a systematic review using technology to improve teacher education programs.

The Voices At The Cutting Edge of Conversational AI.

I am excited to be speaking at #VOICE22 on October 10-12. I invite you to join me as the world plans for ways to reconnect, restore, and reinvigorate plans for growth in 2023.

  • 💡 Discover ways you can modernize your call center to meet customer expectations.
  • 💡 Get a first-hand look at digital transformation initiatives to improve and automate the customer experience.
  • 💡 Learn how you can develop and implement custom assistants to improve efficiency.
  • 💡 Connect with creators, companies, solutions providers, investors, and media from around the world.

Register here: https://www.voicesummit.ai/

https://www.voicesummit.ai/speakers

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin presents “The Three Pillars: Strategic Augmented Reality Digital Technologies Implemetation” at the International Conference on Innovation in Basic – Higher Education, İstanbul, Türkiye

It was my honor to present “The Three Pillars: Strategic Augmented Reality Digital Technologies (ARDT) Implementation” at the International Conference on Innovation in Basic – Higher Education (September 8-11, 2022) İstanbul, Türkiye (Republic of Turkey).


The purpose of this presentation was to frame and share my thoughts on The Three Pillars: Strategic Augmented Reality Digital Technologies (ARDT) Implementation for institutions of Higher Education. To offer ARDTs with functional 3D immersive spaces such as metaverses requires a robust institutional system-wide Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) discussion. TEL integrations not only ask for a highly qualified educator workforce but also demand articulated, interconnected institutional, educator, and learner cultures. The podcast would articulate the three different cultures institutions, educators, and learners to engage in meaningful conversations around ARDTs. The goal was to explore, discuss and debate the purposeful implementation of 21st Century technologies such as metaverses into Institutions of Higher Education while analyzing their positive potential and possible dangers they bring to higher education institutions.

Affirming Diversity & Socio-Political Contexts: Reflections by Touro University Bilingual Certificate Candidate Paola Gomez, EDPN 671

EDPN 671 Theory and Practice of Bilingual and Multicultural Education

This course reviews the impact of historical, legal, sociological, and political issues in relationship to the education of culturally and linguistically diverse students. Students explore the evolution of attitudes regarding bilingualism and multiculturalism in the United States. Emphasis will be placed on developing multicultural competence as educators, with areas of focus including: cross-cultural communication in the classroom and with parents; how the language and culture of the home and the community impact student learning; cultural factors in the relationships between the school and the community. Models of multicultural and bilingual education will be presented and analyzed. Includes 10 hours of field work.

Mrs. Paola Gomez was born in the Bronx and raised partially in the Dominican Republic. She attended Hunter College where she received her degree in Music Performance and Touro College where she received her master’s in education. She is currently a teacher at P186X, where she hopes to integrate her bilingual skills acquired from Touro College’s bilingual education program.

Paola wishes to thank her family, her husband, Justin, and her professor, Dr. Jasmin Cowin, for her support and dedication to candidate learning during the summer semester 2022.

There is an overwhelming amount of research that confirms that an achievement gap does exist in our public education system. According to Nieto and Bode, “41 percent of whites are reading at grade level, only 15 percent of Hispanics and 13 percent of African Americans are at grade level. The gap worsens through the years: Black and Hispanics twelfth graders perform at the same level in reading and math as white eighth graders” (Nieto & Bode, 2018, p.9). The reason why this is happening is because the achievement of this group of students is related directly to the conditions and contexts in which these students learn.

Paola Gomez, Touro University Bilingual Certificate Candidate

Dr. Jasmin (Bey) Cowin will present “The three pillars: Strategic Augmented Reality Digital Technologies (ARDT) Implementation” at the International Conference on Innovation in Basic – Higher Education, September 8-11, 2022 İstanbul, Türkiye (Republic of Turkey)

I am excited to be presenting The three pillars: Strategic Augmented Reality Digital Technologies (ARDT) implementation for International Conference on Innovation in Basic – Higher Education, September 8-11, 2022 İstanbul, Türkiye (Republic of Turkey)

Our conference theme on innovations in basic and higher education will give educators wonderful opportunity to learn more about the latest innovations and cutting-edge research in basic and higher education as well as share best practices in teaching and learning, leadership and administration, and research partnerships.
We look forward to seeing you in Istanbul (8-11 September 2022).

Dr. Patrick Blessinger (President, HETL)

Poland and Polish Culture: Touro University TESOL Gabrielle Mescia’s Cultural Investigation Report for EDPN 671

EDPN 671: Theory and Practice of Bilingual and Multicultural Education: This course reviews the impact of historical, legal, sociological, and political issues in relationship to the education of culturally and linguistically diverse students. Students explore the evolution of attitudes regarding bilingualism and multiculturalism in the United States. Emphasis will be placed on developing multicultural competence as educators, with areas of focus including: cross-cultural communication in the classroom and with parents; how the language and culture of the home and the community impact student learning; cultural factors in the relationships between the school and the community. Models of multicultural and bilingual education will be presented and analyzed. Includes 10 hours of field work.

Gabrielle Mescia is a Pre-K teacher in the West Islip School District in Long Island, NY. Gabrielle graduated from St. Joseph’s College in May 2020 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Child Study, and is currently pursuing a Master’s degree in TESOL at Touro College. In her free time she enjoys cooking, reading, exercising, and spending time with her loved ones.

Gabrielle Mescia, Touro University, TESOL Candidate

I learned quite a bit from this investigation of Polish culture, and I am glad that I chose this project to inform my knowledge and meet the changing needs of my school population. I will be able to use what I learned going forward to provide Polish families with resources and bring students’ culture into the classroom with bilingual and multicultural books and materials. Additionally, I now know many of the differences between Polish and English, and the areas where these students may struggle with learning the language. Here some examples: The polish alphabet (alfabet polski) consists of 32 letters (23 consonants and 9 vowels). Unlike other slavic languages, the polish language (język polski) uses Latin Script with additional diacritics for the special polish phonemes (such as ą and ł). A good rule to remember is that with the most Polish words, the stress lies on the second last syllable. There is no English equivalent of any of the Polish vowels.

Gabrielle Mescia, Touro University, TESOL Candidate