Ethical, Legal, and Fair Use Issues in Copyright or Can I do this?

20160831_134638An overview of Copyright and Fair Use Issues for Students Preparing to enter College by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin

Copyright issues are nothing new under the sun.  The Statute of Anne; April 10, 1710, shows that fair use and copyright issues started almost simultaneously with the proliferation of printing presses: “Whereas printers, booksellers, and other persons have of late frequently taken the liberty of printing, reprinting, and publishing, or causing to be printed, reprinted, and published, books and other writings, without the consent of the authors or proprietors of such books and writings, to their very great detriment, and too often to the ruin of them and their families: for preventing, therefore, such practices for the future…” The Statute of Anne complete text.

I am fascinated with fair use issues which directly relate to linking to other sites.  The question is why CNN, or Time, or Ticketmaster, would object to a link to their page.

“Isn’t the whole point of having a web page to attract users? These hyperlinks are like referrals — and one rarely hears of one party suing another for sending customers to their store. What’s going on here? In a word — advertising (and advertising dollars). In both suits, plaintiffs are asserting that the way that defendants link to their page deprives the plaintiffs of advertising revenue that is properly theirs. TotalNews, for example, surrounds its web page with a “frame” — a border that appears on the screen that contains advertising sold by TotalNews (or other messages that TotalNews wants you to see). Things get interesting now: if, say, you click on the link to ABC’s web page, you will indeed see the ABC page — but the TotalNews border continues to sit there, showing you the advertising that TotalNews has sold (which squeezes any advertising that ABC may contain into a smaller area on your screen). Similarly, Ticketmaster asserts that Microsoft, by linking to the Ticketmaster website, “has gained revenue from advertising made a part of Microsoft’s website, depriving Ticketmaster of favorable advertising business” and that its actions constitute “electronic piracy.” An Introduction to Copyright Law 

Yet, a process can not copy written. So, is CPR a process? When IS something a process? But the questions go deeper.

Works for Hire

Let’s take a look at the idea and concept of  Work For Hire. In An Introduction to Copyright Law, it is stated, “copyrightable material created by an individual in the course of employment is considered to be a work for hire. Ownership of the copyright vests automatically in the employer.”

What does this mean? Who owns the lessons or any original works that were developed for classes?  Are these lessons and creative output the property of the school or district one was employed by? Or if one is a Masters student researching at a college, is that research now the universities property and if one changes programs does that research now becomes untouchable by its creator?  Is a student researcher who pays for the privilege to study not allowed to share or even quote their work? What happens if the student or teacher puts a Creative Commons license on their work?

Reading Understanding Copyright Law by Marshall A. Leaffer will help you to either become more confused or gain a better understanding of the complexities regarding copyright issues.

What is the Creative Commons?

“A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created.” Creative Commons license – Wikipedia

This infographic is an excellent way to get an overview of the traditional copyright process and the Creative Common Process.

The Creative Commons gives everybody the power to select their own license and tag their materials. 

The Creative Commons feature various ways one can legally control one’s work without taking the “extreme” route of completely denying remix or reuse of their content.

Digital Rights Management

How does Digital Right Management work?

Digital rights management, or DRM, is the term to try and limit the copying of music and movies. With new technologies, especially the digitization of movies and music, it is almost effortless to copy and distribute music and movies. This is a major issue regarding copyright issues, and millions of dollars are being lost by companies or creators of music, films, etc. Companies have tried to restrict the copying of their materials by putting code onto their CDs to confuse copying software. Instead of trying to find people who have violated the law, companies are seeking to make it harder to copy materials. The problem, of course, is the consumer might want to make copies of the material just for his/her own use. It is relatively easy to restrict the number of copies of a song, but what if the owner buys a new iPod. That owner has the right to that song, after all, they bought it! Sometimes the file can only be copied from the computer it was originally downloaded on to, but what if the computer got infected, or died?

Copyright issues are laws within a country, but the copying and distribution of materials happen across borders. International treaties, like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), try to address these complex issues.

Writing a paper and in need of public domain resources?

The  Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) offers plenty of resources and mimics some in-person museum experiences in a virtual setting.

The home page is divided into multiple components that help the viewer to get oriented to the site quickly and able to determine which option will get the viewer further into the website content. Drop down menus, and content links are well labeled and make choices clear and easily understood.

The central section on the HOME page in the top left is dedicated to advertising the newest exhibition which currently is the American Empire. It offers a scrolling slideshow of maps and other content that catch the viewer’s eye and encourage further exploration. Below it is a search box that boasts content of over 16,000,000 items. Currently, there are 32 different Exhibition topics to explore. The website states that:

“Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) Exhibitions are designed to tell stories of national significance using source materials from libraries, archives, and museums across the United States, including letters, photographs, posters, oral histories, video clips, sheet music, and more.” The Home page also offers News and Twitter feeds and provides examples of Apps that others have created using the data collections on the website.”

When looking for non-copyright pictures the following short video will help guide you:

Steven Davis Video: Finding “Free-to-Use” Pictures

Open Educational Resources – for everybody!

“Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. It is the leading trend in distance education/open and distance learning domain as a consequence of the openness movement.”
Open educational resources – Wikipedia

Erica Zimmer, a graduate student at Marlboro College for Professional and Graduate Studies explains OER’s in a short video.

Open Educational Resources Video by Erica Zimmer

Creative Commons – The more you know by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin

What does it all mean for Me? (The Student)

I believe everybody should make choices from Wikimedia and other CC sources. It is important to respect the work of others.   Taking the time and effort to use one’s own images whenever possible will add several layers of work.  Yet, the whole point of going to college is to create competency in writing, presentations, and knowledge. Copying others work is Plagiarism, not flattery!

Related image

 

 

 

 

#RCNYRotaryWalks (around the world!)

Start: October 14th, 2017

Central Park, NY and around the world!

All RotarRCNY new designy Clubs, Rotaract Clubs, Interact Clubs are welcome – it’s a big world! Invite your friends, bring your family, activate your neighbors, reach out –  Let’s do a global walk to create better visibility of our Rotarian values and goals, increase visibility, see what other clubs are doing, and enjoy great fellowship!

# Rotary Walks – around the World, will be the common bond, goal, and outlet for Rotary members combined philanthropic energy waiting to be unleashed, creating global visibility to the Rotarian foundational core values. Each club picks their own time, route, distance and project they want to feature. THEN: Post your walk pictures, project and how far your Club walked so we can tally the miles – around the globe to this link: PeopleMovers, the Community Network

Slide Presentation!

-RCNY #RotaryWalks PeopleMovers

by Dr. Jasmin B. Cowin, President Rotary Club of New York, 2017-2018

Presidential Motto for 2017 – 2018
Cooperation + Collaboration = Transformation

Rotary Club of New York Presidency Installation Address by Dr. Jasmin Bey Cowin

Rotary LogoDear Ladies and Gentlemen, honored guests, beloved family and my Rotarian Fellows,

It is indeed a great honor and responsibility to stand before you as the second woman in our Clubs 108-year history to lead our Club. The transition year gave the space to reflect and reach out to former and future leadership and members. There were wide-ranging conversations and guidance by our first woman President, Helen Reisler.

I read much about leadership and in the article, The Secrets of Great Teamwork by Martine Haas and Mark Mortensen a particular quote resonated deeply, “.. what teams need to thrive are certain “enabling conditions.” I have come to the conclusion that my focus must be on enabling you the members, the heart, and soul of our Rotary Club of New York. I have an advantage according to the authors – I have the “fourth critical condition: a shared mindset.” Everybody from the Board to YOU, the members deeply believes in the core values of the Rotary Club.

Having the goal for our Club to take a lead on “Rotary means Business”, “Service above Self “ and to be the creator, incubator, and starter of a Rotary Walk around the World will be the common bond, goal, and outlet for our combined philanthropic energy waiting to be unleashed, creating global visibility to our foundational core values:

Service
Fellowship
Diversity
Integrity
Leadership

We achieve this through asking ourselves:

1. Is it the TRUTH?

2. Is it FAIR to all concerned?

3. Will it build GOODWILL and BETTER FRIENDSHIPS?

4. Will it be BENEFICIAL to all concerned?

My idea #Rotary (name of Club) Walk hopefully embodies the core principle that the “the foundation of every great team is a direction that energizes, orients, and engages its members. Teams cannot be inspired if they don’t know what they’re working toward and don’t have explicit goals.”

I further believe you elected me to be the voice of your collective desire to change the lives of our fellow citizens in Manhattan and around the world to the better.

In other words: I accept the position as the President Servant-Leader to the members of the Rotary Club of New York.

Thank You for your trust in me.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Saftey Procedures

PeoplePrepLogo2
Carbon Monoxide, an odorless deadly gas, can cause illness, permanent health damage, and death. It is formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as gas, coal, wood, and oil. Carbon monoxide is absorbed via the lungs into the bloodstream, where it replaces oxygen.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning First Aid
Persons who are affected by inhalation of carbon monoxide contaminated air must be seen by a physician as soon as possible.
Until the affected person is receiving care from a qualified medical practitioner the following treatment should be administered:
Move the patient to fresh air and loosen clothing
Open all windows

If unconscious:
Call 911
If breathing stopped: Begin CPR at once

If conscious:
Avoid unnecessary exertion
Call 911 or Go to emergency room

Burning Fuels Safely:
Use fire-resistant materials on walls around wood stores.
Never use flammable liquids to start a fire.
Use only seasoned hardwood. Soft, moist wood accelerates creosote residue which sticks to the inner walls of the chimney. Creosote is a fire hazard and can cause a chimney fire.
Never burn cardboard boxes, trash or debris in your fireplace or wood stove
When building a fire, place logs at the rear of the fireplace on an adequate supporting grate
Never leave a fire in the fireplace unattended. Extinguish the fire before going to bed or leaving the house.
Soak hot ashes in water and place them in a metal container outside your house.

Safety Checklist:
Have a Carbon Monoxide alarm in your home.
Proper ventilation is the key.
Always use the right fuel.
Never leave an open fire unattended without a fireguard.
Always use a securely fitted fireguard when children are in the house.
Have your chimney cleaned once a year by a certified chimney sweeper.

Troubleshooting
If your appliance starts burning slowly, goes out frequently or if you smell or suspect fumes you should:
Open doors and windows.
Carefully put out the fire, or allow it to burn itself out.
Do not stay in the room any longer than necessary.
Do not attempt to relight the appliance until a professional has checked it.
NOTE: Overloading the fireplace with wood in an attempt to get a longer burn time contributes to creosote buildup.

TAKE THE QUIZ: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and your Saftey