What does a clinically rich teaching program mean? For an assignment in EDPN 673 Methods and Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language, Touro Teacher Candidates will work independently to create a lesson plan for English Language Learners, reflecting their learning of the course (e.g., task-based language teaching) using a SIOP or other pre-approved lesson plan. The lesson must be taught in class.
Yet another question: How does faculty encourage life-long learning and the desire to do research for teacher candidates? I believe by publishing excellent work by teacher candidates!
The paper includes the following elements:
Submit a differentiated lesson plan combining elements of the SIOP lesson-planning model with elements requiring the candidate to differentiate and modify plans, activities, and assessments to meet the needs of all students. The candidate will utilize concepts in learning theory, curriculum development and instructional effectiveness to produce lesson plans that are aligned with the NYS Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) standards.
The TESOL education lesson plan format includes the following elements:
- Readiness (goals/objectives, standards, anticipatory set)
- Instruction (input, modeling, checking for understanding), accommodation (addressing the needs of students with exceptional circumstances and conditions), and assessment.
- Final evaluation section for the candidate to self-assess the degree to which the lesson was taught successfully. These post-lesson self-analysis questions are designed to help the candidate think about the instructional process and how it might be improved in future lessons.
The Touro TESOL education lesson plan design structure is as follows:
Lesson Plan and Analysis
Introduction: This classroom is a first-grade mainstream ENL classroom consisting of 12 general education students and 11 ELL students. This classroom has a general education teacher and an ENL teacher that pushes in at select times during the day. The ENL teacher pushed in for this Readers Workshop lesson to support the ELL students.
Here Touro TESOL teacher candidate Christine Romonoyske’s final submission. She graduated from St. Joseph’s College with her Bachelor’s Degree in Early Childhood and Childhood Education. She is a New York State Certified Teacher working towards her Master’s Degree in TESOL. Christine share that she is,”I am excited to use the new strategies and methods I learned in my future teaching!” Please note the substantial reference section for her submission.
Part 1: Lesson Plan
|I. Goals, Objectives, Standards
Teacher Name: Christine Romonoyske
Subject: Readers Workshop
ESL Levels: Transitioning and Expanding
Lesson Topic: Text Features in Nonfiction books
· Language: The students will be able to scan a story and discuss the nonfiction text features they find with their group and list them on a post-it.
· Content: The students will be able to identify nonfiction text features in their book club stories.
NYSED Learning Standards for English as a Second Language
· Standard 1: Students will listen, speak, read, and write in English for information and understanding.
1.1 Identify and use basic reading and listening strategies to make text comprehensible and meaningful. Such strategies include predicting; previewing; reviewing; recognizing sight words; listening selectively; listening for a specific purpose; listening for main ideas and details; using context clues, cognates, and an understanding of letter-sound relationships. (L, R)
1.3 Select information appropriate to the purpose of the investigation. (L, R)
1.6 Formulate and share opinions about information and ideas with reference to features in oral and written text such as details and facts. (L, S, R, W)
1.10 Demonstrate a basic understanding of facts. (S, W)
1.13 Engage in collaborative activities through a variety of student groupings to gather, share, discuss, and present information. (L, S, R, W)
|II. Anticipatory Set
Prior Knowledge: The students have been reading fiction books. The students have read stories independently, with a partner, with a small group, or as a whole class. The students have learned the features and purpose of a fiction story. As the students read their fiction books, they have been reading to find evidence that supports the main idea of the text. The students also read to identify the author’s purpose of the story, which is to entertain. The students previously learned that fiction books are stories that are not real, have a beginning, middle, and an end, have characters and animals that can talk, and that they are read for enjoyment. The students have had discussions in their book clubs about the fiction stories their club is reading, as well as sharing their thoughts and ideas aloud to the whole class. The students have been answering question prompts using the textual evidence with their book club groups and whole class.
Motivation: The students will answer the question, “What do you know about nonfiction books?” I will provide a visual by showing the students the covers of a fiction book and a nonfiction book. The books will be kept on display while the students turn and talk to discuss their thoughts and ideas.
Key Vocabulary: fiction, nonfiction, purpose, inform, photographs, headings, table of content, fact
The purpose of this lesson from a language perspective is to utilize all four modalities of literacy by working cooperatively in their book club groups. The purpose of this lesson from a content perspective is for the students to connect the features and gained knowledge of a nonfiction text to their learning in school and the real world.
|IV. Plan for Instruction
Adaptations: This is an ENL classroom. There are 12 general education students and 11 students that are ELL, 6 at the transitioning level and 5 at the expanding levels. The students are grouped heterogeneously based on their reading levels. During the small group activity, the teacher will act as a facilitator and float between the groups offering support and answering any questions the students have. Visuals, charts, and organizers will be provided to the students that need additional support.
Remediation: Students who are struggling and didn’t master the objectives will be pulled to the reading table for small group instruction. I will guide the students as they work on the activity and facilitate when they work together. I will remind the students of the language and content objectives and review what they are looking for in their text. The students that are still struggling will be provided with visuals, charts, or differentiated reading passages to support their needs.
Enrichment: The students that are on or above grade level will be grouped together in their book club groups. They will be provided with books on their reading levels. These students will work together and self-correct when needed. These students will be given minimal support, unless they ask for it. These students will be challenged to write sentences based on the text features they found in their nonfiction books rather than listing them.
ESL- Mainstreamed: The ESL students at the transitioning and expanding levels receive push- in services. During this lesson, the push-in ENL teacher will work with the ELL students and provide them with the support they need.
· Anchor charts
· Leveled nonfiction books
· Book club baskets
|V. Lesson Presentation (Input/Output):
In the beginning of the lesson the teacher wrote the content and language objectives on the board and had the students read them along with her. After reviewing the objectives, the teacher and the students created an anchor chart listing the purpose of fiction books and the features that are found in fiction books. The teacher then began to introduce Nonfiction books to the students. The teacher pulled up a picture of a fiction book and a nonfiction book on the Smartboard. The teacher told the students to look at the books and see if they notice any differences. The teacher asked, “What do you know about nonfiction books?” The teacher told the students to turn and talk to discuss their ideas about nonfiction books. The teacher waited a few moments providing the students, especially the ELL learners, time to formulate their thoughts and answers. The teacher directed the student’s attention back to her and asked, “What did we notice about the nonfiction book?” The students discussed how the cover of the nonfiction book had real pictures on it and the fiction book had fake pictures. The teacher agreed with the student’s observation. The teacher took a book walk through a nonfiction book pointing out and discussing meaning and purpose of the table of contents, true facts, photographs (real-life pictures), and headings they saw. The teacher wrote down the text features of the nonfiction book on the same anchor chart as the fiction book, to show the students how nonfiction books include different text features as fiction books. The teacher asked, “What is the purpose, or reason, why people read nonfiction books?” The teacher told the students to turn and talk to discuss the question.
The teacher told the students that they are going to be working in their book clubs to find the different text features that their nonfiction book has. The students already know who is in each book club group due to previous reading group activities She explained that each group will have a different book, that is determined by their reading level. All books will be on the same topic, which is animals. For example, group 1-panda bears, group 2- butterflies, group 3-tigers, group 4-snakes, group 5-sharks, group 6-monkeys. The teacher told the students that they will be working collaboratively with their groups to scan the book and find the different text features we just learned. she told the students that they will be using post-it notes and pencils to list the different text features they find. They will stick the post-it note on the page where the text feature was found, with the specific text feature written on the post it. The teacher told the students that the anchor chart with the nonfiction text features they are looking for will be available during their group activity as a reminder.
Before sending the students off to begin their activity, the teacher modeled exactly what they needed to do. She picked up the nonfiction book she used for the book walk. She did another book walk but exaggerating when she hit a nonfiction text feature. For example, when she opened the book, she stopped on the first page that stated, “table of contents.” The teacher asked the students, “Do you notice anything on this page?” The teacher waited a few moments before expecting an answer. She then discussed that it was a table of contents. She picked up her pencil and wrote “table of contents” on the post-it and stuck it to that page. The teacher continued to demonstrate the activity on the next 3 pages of the book. The teacher said, “Give me a thumbs up if you know what you need to do with your group!” The teacher said I have a few reminders, “Remember, we are scanning the book for text features, not reading each page, and if you forget, the text features are listed on the anchor chart in the front of the room!” The teacher told the students to meet with their book club groups in their appropriate reading spots, grab their buckets (which has the reading level nonfiction book, pencil, and post-its, that was prepped before the lesson began) and begin to work. Also, all students need to participate in the activity. Every member needs a turn reading, writings, sharing and listening to ideas!
As the students are working, the teacher will rotate through the groups. The groups were created on the students independent reading levels. The ELL students are broken into two groups. The ENL push-in teacher is working with the ELL students providing them with the support they need. As the teacher is circulating the room she is acting as a facilitator and giving support as needed. The teacher is also providing oral feedback to the students. As the teacher continues to listen in on each group, she begins to ask the students questions to check for understanding. She asks questions like, “What text feature did this group see in their book?”, “Can you show me where you saw a real-life picture?” or “Did you learn any true facts about your animal?” The students will discuss answers to the questions as a group and have a conversation with the teacher. The students will help each other with the new vocabulary by using context clues, or visuals in their nonfiction books. The teacher continues to monitor the students and their success.
As the teacher circulates the room and sees that the groups are finishing up, she will tell the students to sit back at the carpet with their book club groups and baskets. The teacher will call on each group, one at a time to stand in front of the room to present their findings. The teacher will tell the students to show and tell their classmates the different nonfiction text features that their book has. When the group is finished showing their classmates, they will put their post-its on chart paper. Each group will follow the same directions and present their findings and place their post-its on the chart. As the groups are speaking aloud, the teacher will be there to give assistance or prompting when needed. When all the groups are finished presenting, the teacher will discuss the similar text features that all the nonfiction books had.
During the lesson and small group activity, the remediation group will be pulled to the back table for small group instruction and assistance by the teacher. The enrichment group will be required to work collaboratively with minimal support and write sentences rather than listing ideas.
|VI. Check for Understanding:
· Guided Practice: The students will practice the language and content objectives through the lesson by scanning the story while identifying and discussing the nonfiction text features, they find with their group, and list on post-its. The teacher will model the activity and check for understanding through formative assessment before allowing the students to work independently with their groups.
· Reteach: Based on the formative assessment, the teacher can determine if the students need to be retaught the skills needed for the activity. The teacher begins by working in whole group then small group. The teacher will work with small groups and review the different text features found in nonfiction books. The teacher will model the activity and provide these students with visuals, charts, highlighted texts, or display a completed outline until the student becomes comfortable and confident with the activity. However, after the teacher provides the students with assistive material, the teacher will monitor and watch as the students work independently in their groups.
· Strategies: As the teacher circulates the room meeting with each group, the students in the group can display hand signals representing their understanding. This strategy allows the teacher to know as a group and individually which students understand the objectives. As the teacher passes the group, each student can put their thumb up, down, or in the middle to represent their understanding. The teacher can then have a discussion with the students that have their thumbs in the middle or down and then decide if they need to be pulled for small group instruction.
|VII. Review Learning Outcomes/Closure:
· Review: After all the groups present the information they gathered on nonfiction text features, the teacher and the students will discuss the similar text features that all groups had. The teacher will pull up an interactive Smart board activity. The teacher will put up different pages from different books one at a time, and the students will need to decide if the book is nonfiction by what they learned about the different text features. The student will have to tap on the picture that represents the nonfiction book. The students need to look for and tap the image that has photographs, table of contents, headings, or true facts. The teacher will call up students one at a time to participate in the activity. This activity will allow the students to review the nonfiction text features they learned during the lesson.
· Assessment: During the lesson, the teacher used formative assessments. As the lesson proceeded, the teacher observed the students during whole group and small group interactions. The teacher used formative assessments to decide if and where she needed to improve instructional methods through student observation and feedback.
|VIII. Independent Practice/Extending Learning
· As the unit continues through the week, the students will continue working with nonfiction text features. The students will begin to independently read nonfiction books rather than scan through specifically looking for text features. But as the students are reading, they will be mindful of the text features they see. The students will start to read and look for important facts in their book. The students will be able to relate their own life and experiences to the facts they read about.
Part 2: Reflection and Post-Lesson Analysis
- How many students achieved the lesson objective(s)? For those who did not, why not?
Almost all students achieved the lesson objectives. The students were able to scan the story, identify nonfiction text features, and discuss them with their book club members. During small groups, some students struggled with the fact that some of their books did not include all the text features we discussed. I told the students that not all nonfiction texts have every text feature we spoke about. I told the students that they need to be the detectives and find out which text feature their book includes. Another slight error some groups made was that they wrote all the text features on one post-it, instead of writing the features on individual post-its, on different pages of their book. As the groups presented their findings, they were still able to show the class where they found the text features despite the incorrect placement of the post-its. Overall, after clarifying the confusion, most of the students did an excellent job and met the objectives.
- What were my strengths and weaknesses?
One strength I feel that I had during the lesson is how I incorporated many materials such as visuals, charts, technology, and organizers into the lesson. My goal was to meet the needs of each learner by using different tools to support their needs. Another strength I had was the wait time I applied after I asked a question. In most cases, ELLs need more time to formulate answers and should be given some time to think before having to respond to the question. One last strength I displayed in this lesson is the amount of time I allowed for student interaction. Through the lesson I provided the students with numerous amounts of small group interactions. According to the SIOP model, through meaningful interaction, students can practice speaking and making themselves understood by asking and answering questions, negotiating meaning, clarifying ideas, and other techniques. A weakness that I had in the lesson was not spending an even amount of time with each small group. Each group deserves the same amount of attention and support. The only group that I should not need to spend as much time with was the enrichment group because they can work independently.
- How should I alter this lesson?
I would alter this lesson by not including the components of fiction books on the anchor chart. I feel that the students could have been confused with seeing both types of books written down on the chart. The students could have interpreted this lesson as comparing and contrasting fiction and nonfiction books. I should have just reviewed fiction books orally and only made an anchor chart based on nonfiction text features. Also, I should have reviewed the new vocabulary more in depth. The students were familiar with the words, but I could have created a concept definition map to ensure they completely understand their new vocabulary.
- How would I pace it differently?
The pace of a lesson is extremely important because you want to make sure the students are engaged the entire time. Overall, I feel that I taught this lesson at a good pace. I feel that I spent an appropriate amount of time on each part of the lesson. The mini lesson and small group interaction were completed in a timely manner. As stated above, I would have taken the part of the lesson out where I wrote the components of fiction texts on the anchor chart. This would have saved time during the mini lesson. One part of the lesson that I feel could have been shortened was the group presentations. Instead of having each group show and tell all the text features their book included, each group could have chosen 2-3 features and only shared those. I also feel that the transitions between whole group and small group could have been done quicker by the students.
- Were all students actively participating? If not, why not?
I am happy to say that all the students were actively participating during the lesson. Every student had a job when they were working in their group. The students were required to take turns listing text features, speaking to their group members, listening to their group members, and reading information from their book. As I walked around to observe each group, I saw all students actively involved. The students were even more excited to participate when I introduced the interactive Smartboard activity. All students enjoy being chosen to touch the Smartboard and participate in hands-on activities.
- What adjustments did I make to reach varied learning styles and ability levels?
- Bloom’s Taxonomy
In relation to Bloom’s Taxonomy, the lesson was created to meet the six levels. First the students needed to remember the facts about fiction books, and then define what nonfictions books were. Next, the students discuss the concepts of text features in nonfiction books. After, the students were instructed to work in groups and apply their understanding of how to find and list nonfiction text features while scanning and examining the pages of their books by making connections to the previously learned nonfiction text features. The students then evaluated their work by supporting their findings through visuals and context clues. Lastly, the students created post-its to present to the class. According to Armstrong, it is important to incorporate Bloom’s Taxonomy because organizing objectives helps to clarify objectives for teachers and for students. (2018)
- Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
This lesson adjusted to many of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences learning styles. Bodily-kinesthetic is used because the students transition from whole group on the carpet to small group interactions in different areas of the classroom. Also, the students interact in a hand-on activity using the Smartboard. Visual-spatial is used when I modeled the activity for the students and when I provided the students with anchor charts, visuals, and other graphics on the Smartboard. Interpersonal is another of Gardner’s intelligences that was used during the lesson. Most of the lesson was involving the student’s interaction with each other. The students worked in small groups sharing ideas, thoughts, having discussions, and spending time and attention away from the teacher.
Armstrong, P. (2018, August 13). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved April 27, 2019, from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/
Lane, C. (n.d.). Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved April 27, 2019, from https://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
Kareva, V., & Echevarria, J. (2013). Using the SIOP Model for Effective Content Teaching with Second and Foreign Language Learners. 1-10.
Markos, A., & Himmel, J. (2016). Using Sheltered Instruction to Support English Learners. Center for Applied Linguistics.
NYSED. (n.d.). Learning Standards for English Language Learners., from http://www.highered.nysed.gov/kiap/precoll/service_learn/standards/esl.pdf